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47 terms

Protective Mechanisms of CNS

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What are 4 protective mechs of the CNS?
skull, meningeal layers, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood supply
The meninges protect the ____ and ____:
brain and spinal cord
The meninges consist of 3 fibrous membrane:
dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
The dura mater is located where:
the outer most membrane
What layer means "tough mother":
dura mater
Which layer adheres to the bones of the skull:
dura mater
The space between the dura mater and the skull is called:
epidural space
The space between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane is called:
subdural space
One extension of the dura mater is the:
falx cerebri
The falx cerebri attaches to the:
christa galli and the occipital bone
The middle meningeal layer is the:
arachnoid membrane
The space beneath the arachnoid membrane is the subaracnoid space. It is filled with:
cerebral spinal fluid
At the crown of the brain there are arachnoid granulations. These do what:
absorb cerebral spinal fluid
The inner most layer is:
pia mater
This layer is the most flexible because it is composed of collagen:
pia mater
The pia mater has a network of ________ that penetrate it:
blood vessels
The epidural space between the dura mater and spinal cord is often a place for injections to block what:
pain in the lower bod
The lumbar puncture takes place where:
L2
This layer surround the cord tightly:
pia mater
What is meningitis?
a disease involving inflammation or irritation of the meninges. It may be viral or bacterial
Bacterial meningitis can cause severe illness and brain damage like:
impaired ability to think/learn, hearing loss, loss vision, hydrocephalous
What type of headache is most commonly identified as a migrane:
vascular
This type of vascuar headache can produce a fever:
toxic
This type of vascular headache is genetically linked or there is an abnormality of the hypothalamus:
cluster
This a very rare type of vascular headache:
high blood pressure
This is the most common type of myogenic/muscular headache:
tension
This type of headache originates from disorders of the neck, cervical roots C1-C3
cervicogenic
Traction and inflammatory headaches are associated with:
sinus infections and strokes
What are ventricles:
fluid filled areas
Where are the lateral ventricles located:
both hemispheres
How do the lateral and third ventricles connect:
the cerebral aqueduct at the level of the thalamus
The third and fourth ventricles communicate how:
the level of the pons and cerebellum
Each ventricle has choroid plexus that produce:
cerebral spinal fluid
What is the purpose of cerebral spinal fluid:
to protect the brain from injury
If the arachnoid granulations cannot absorb cerebral spinal fluid it can lead to:
hydrocephalus
What is communicating hyrdrocephalus:
failure of CSF to drain into sinus system
What is non-communicating hydropcephalus:
blockage of the flow of CSF from ventricles to subarachnoid space
What is a characteristic of hydrocephalus:
enlarged or swollen head
Arteries carry blood to the:
brain
Veins return blood to the:
hear
There are 2 types of neuronal response to injury:
retrograde reaction and wallerian degeneration
This is what type of neural response- process that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed, in which the part of the axon separated from the neuron's cell body degenerates distal to the injury
Wallerian degeneration
When the cell body swells and the nucleus is displaces this has taken place:
retrograde reaction
What are 4 types of vascular pathologies:
strokes, occlusive vascular pathologies, hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations
What does a blood brain barrier do?
restricts movement of specific substances from the bloodstream to the brain tissue
Loss of GABA is associated with:
Huntington's disease
Alcoholism increases:
serotonin