Humans first evolved in southern and eastern Africa. There they began to develop and start the first advancements in trade, hunting, gathering, technology, and tools. Around 100,000-60,000 years ago, during the ice age, humans began their trek out of Africa and into Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. led to an increase in human population, as the greater productivity of agriculture was able to support much larger numbers. Human dominance over other forms of life on the planet, and human selection modified the genetic composition of numerous plants and animals. Farming involved hard work and more of it than in many earlier gathering and hunting societies so, it caused a deterioration in health with more tooth decay, malnutrition, and anemia, a shorter physical stature, and diminished life expectancy. Living close to animals subjected humans to new diseases. Living in large communities created the first epidemics. Relying on a small number of plants or animals rendered early agricultural societies vulnerable to famine, in case of crop failure, drought, or other catastrophes. The advent of agriculture bore costs as well as benefits. From agriculture came pottery, weaving, textiles, and metallurgy.