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Culture & Reform: Chapter 12

Chapter 12 in Alan Brinkley's American History: A Survey
STUDY
PLAY
decline of merchant capitalism
merchants discovered more profit in manufacturing than in trade
Industrial apitalists
new ruling class; the aristocrats of the northeast
Lowell System
enlisted young teenaged women
decline of Lowell
wages declined, hours lengthened, conditions deteriorated, overcrowded
immigrant labor
large labor supply, cheap, unfamiliar with their new country
decline of tobacco
market unstable; exhausted land
short staple cotton
hardier and coarser; grow in variety of climates and soils
lower south
cotton production dominated; "cotton kingdom";
colonial dependency
South relied on the North; south profited from it's agricultural system; fully invested in it so there was nothing left to invest in industrial or commercial economy; climate of south better suited agriculture than industry; southerners lazier?
cavalier image
southerners believed themselves to be based on traditional values of chivalry, leisure, and elegance
yankees
the yankees of the north were more concerned with rapid growth and development rather than the refined and gracious way of life
planter aristocracy
the wealthy plantation owners with many slaves stood at the head of society determining the political, economical, and social aspects of society; they were the face of the south
cult of honor
avenging insults was a social necessity, especially to do so for women
the southern lady
centered in the home; companions and hostesses to their husbands and nurturing mothers to children; rarely engage in public activities or find income-producing work
southern status of women
"women, like children, have but one right, and that is the right to protection. the right to protection involves the obligation to obey."
walt whitman
romanticism; son of carpenter and traveled all over doing many odd jobs until he finally published his first work 'leaves of grass'
Leaves of Grass
Whitman's first volume of work; poems were a celebration of democracy, liberation of the individual
Moby Dick
Melville in 1851; portrayed Ahab, story of courage and the strength of the individual but also tragedy of pride and revenge
Edgar Allen Poe
Author of sad and macabre stories and poems, Tamerlane and The Raven; explored the deeper painful world of the spirit and emotions
reason vs. understanding
reason: the individual's innate capacity to grasp beauty and truth through giving full expression to the instincts and emotions. understanding: use of intellect in the narrow and artificial ways imposed by society, repression of instinct
Ralph Waldo Wmerson
leader of the transcendentalists; most important intellectual of his age; nationalist
Nature
Emerson's best known essay 1836; in the quest for self-fulfillment individuals should work for a common communion with the natural world
Henry David Thoreau
next to Emerson, leading transcendentalist; wrote about repressive forces of society
Walden
Thoreau's most famous book 1854; led him to live in a small cabin; living simply
civil disobedience
a public refusal to obey unjust laws
Brook Farm
Boston transcendentalist George Ripley established this community as an experimental community in West Roxbury, Mass.; Socialist
Nathaniel Hawthorne
original resident of Brook Farm; wrote the Blithedale Romance portraying disastrous experiment; the scarlet letter; the house of seven gables
charles fourier
ideas of socialist communities organized as cooperative phalanxes
Robert Owen
Scottish industrialist; founded new experimental community in indiana in 1825, a "village of cooperation" but was economic failure
John Humphrey Noyes
established the Oneida community in 1848 in upstate New York
Oneida
everyone married to everyone
Shakers
founded by "Mother" Ann Lee; celibacy; sexual equality; god either male or female
American Colonization Society
society that promoted the effort to encourage the resettlement of blacks in africa or the caribbean
Liberia
nation established by the relocatet slaves in 1830; named capital after monroe (monrovia)
Failure of colonization
not enough funding, relocated fewer slaves than were born in the US in a month; blacks did not want to move to the unfamiliar country
William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator
grew tired of Lundy's moderate tone and decided to found his own weekly newspaper called the liberator; called for immediate abolition; founded the New England Antislavery Society and American Antislavery Society
American Antislavery Society
Garrison founded in 1833; membership mushroomed; antislavery sentiment growing
David Walker
free black from Boston-published this harsh pamphlet "cut our master's throats"
Frederick Douglas
published North Star
Elijah Lovejoy
editor of abolitionist newspaper in Illinois; repeated victim of mob violence; shot and killed when whites invaded his press a 4th time and burnt it
Amistad Case
africans destined for slavery in cuba seized a ship and tried to sail it to africa but the US navy seized it and held the africans as pirates; court declared them free because of the international slave trade had been illegal
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of uncle tom's cabin; influential abolitionist
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Stowe's powerful abolitionist book; remarkable bestseller
personal liberty laws
forbade state officials to assist in the capture and return of fugitive slaves