Introduction to Communications (COMM 101)
Terms in this set (81)
An action process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.
A theory that holds that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata.
Cognitive schemata (3)
Mental structures we use to organize and interpret experience.
Schemata (Singular: schema) (3)
Cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiences. The four types of schemata are prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.
A knowledge structure that defines the clearest or most representative example of some category.
Personal construct (3)
A bipolar mental yardstick that allows us to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgement, such as "honest-dishonest."
A predictive generalization about a person or situation.
One of the four cognitive schemata; scripts define expected or appropriate sequences of action in particular settings.
The subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience.
An explanation of why things happen or why people act as they do; not necessarily correct interpretations of others and their motives.
Self-serving bias (3)
The tendency to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific, external influences beyond our control.
Positive visualization (3)
A technique used to enhance success in a variety of situations by teaching people to visualize themselves being effective and successful.
Expectancy violation theory (3)
A theory claiming that when our expectations are violated, we become more cognitively alert as we struggle to understand and cope with unexpected behaviors.
Cognitive complexity (3)
The number of personal constructs used (remember, personal constructs are bipolar dimensions of judgment), how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions.
The ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual apart from social roles and generalizations.
The ability to feel with another person, to feel what he or she feels in a situation.
The beliefs, values, understanding, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a group of people.
Social Community (3)
A group of people who live within a dominant culture yet also belong to another social group or groups that share values, understandings, and practices distinct from those of the dominant culture.
Mind reading (3)
The assumption that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something.
An interpretation that goes beyond the facts known but is believed to logically follow from them.
A belief or opinion based on observations, feelings, assumptions, or other non-factual phenomena.
The observation and regulation of one's own communication.
Arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representations of phenomena. They are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought.
Nonverbal communication (4)
All forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements.
Verbal communication (4)
Words and only words; does not include inflection, accent, volume, pitch, or other paralinguistic features of speech.
Random or not necessary. Symbols are arbitrary because there is no need for any particular symbol to stand for a particular referent.
Which of the features of language represents that symbols used are NOT intrinsically connected to the phenomena they represent?
Subject to multiple meanings. Symbols are ambiguous because their meanings vary from person to person, context to context, and so forth.
Removed from concrete reality. Symbols are abstract because they refer to, but are not equivalent to reality.
Brute facts (4)
Objective, concrete phenomena.
Institutional facts (4)
Meanings people assign to brute facts (objective, concrete phenomena) that are based on human interpretation.
A man holds a ball and runs across a white chalk line on a grass field. Is it a Brute or Institutional Fact? (4)
This is a piece of paper. Is it a Brute or Institutional Fact? (4)
A man scores a touchdown. Is it a Brute or Institutional Fact? (4)
Communication rules (4)
Shared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations.
Regulative rules (4)
Communication rules that regular interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things.
Constitutive rules (4)
Communication rules that specify how certain communicative acts are to be counted.
Jim shows that he is your friend by defending your decision to others and keeping your secrets. Is the following and example of a constitutive rule or a regulative rule being followed?
_____________ govern interaction by specifying where, when, how and with whom to talk about what topics. Is the following and example of a constitutive rule or a regulative rule being followed?
Miguel's big graduation party had been planned for weeks. His best friend approached him the day before the party and told him, "I won't be able to make it to your party because something came up." Miguel was shocked. He felt that his best friend was either in big trouble over something or that they weren't really friends after all. What kind of relationship rule was Miguel following?
Defining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes. It is subjective and not always agreed on by those involved in the interaction.
The Demand-Withdrawal Pattern arises when people don't agree on _________________. (4)
The Demand-Withdraw Pattern (4)
In this pattern, one person demands something, such as disclosure, and the other pulls away to avoid disclosing. Depends on subject perceptions.
I pursue because you withdraw. I withdraw because you pursue me. I pursue harder because you withdraw further. I am withdrawing more because you are pursing harder.
Responding to a person as if one aspect of that person were the total of who the person is. (Ex: she's asian)
Loaded language (4)
An extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and thus meanings. It encourages extreme perceptions. (Ex: "geezer or old fogey" regard older people with contempt/pity, whereas "senior citizen/elder reflect more respectful attitudes.)
Language choice is NOT neutral.
A group's reclamation of a term used by others to degrade the group's members; the treatment of those terms as positive self-descriptions. Aims to remove the stigma from terms that others use pejoratively. (Ex: some gays, lesbians,a and transgender people have reappropriated the term queer and use it as a positive statement about their identity)
Hypothetical thought (4)
Thinking about experiences and ideas that do not exist or are not immediately present to the senses (not part of our concrete, daily reality). It allows us to name and imagine possibilities beyond what currently exists. It is possible because we are symbol users. It can enrich personal relationships by allowing intimates to remember shared memories and it helps improve who we are.
The creative, spontaneous, impulsive aspect of the self. The I is complimented by the me. The I acts impulsively in response to inner needs and desires, regardless of social norms.
The reflective, analytical, socially conscious aspect of self; monitors and moderates the I's impulses. Me complements the I aspect of self. When we monitor ourselves, the me notices and evaluates the I's impulses and may modify them based on the me's awareness of social norms.
3 dimensions of relationship-level meaning (4)
Responsiveness: different social and cultural groups learn distinct rules for showing responsiveness.
Liking: In addition to general rules/responsiveness shared in western society, particular social groups instill more specific rules.
Power: Use verbal communication to define dominance and to negotiate status and influence.
Static evaluation (4)
An assessment that suggests that something is unchanging or static; ex: "Bob is impatient;" It can be both inaccurate and irritating. Whenever the word I is used, it suggests that something is fixed. In reality, we aren't static but continually changing. A person who is impatient on one occasion may be patient in different situations.
A technique of noting that every statement reflects a specific time and circumstance and may not apply to other times or circumstances. Mental indexing reminds us that we and others change.
Language that identifies the speaker's or perceiver's thoughts and feelings. It provides concrete description of behaviors without holding the other person responsible for how we feel. Ex: I feel hurt when you ignore what I say or when you shout, I feel dominated.
Language that attributes intensions and motives to another person, usually the person to whom one is speaking. They tend to be accusations that are abstract or unspecific; reduces our personal power and our motivation to change what is happening. Ex: "You make me feel.."
Nonverbal communication (5)
All forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements. It is ambiguous, it interacts with verbal communication, it regulates interaction, establish relationship-level meaning, and reflects cultural values.
5 ways in which nonverbal behaviors interact with verbal communication
Repeat (#1), Highlight (#2), Complement (#3), Contradict (#4), Substitute (#5)
I ordered two hot dogs at 7-11. When I said, "I want two hotdogs, please", I held up two fingers.
Josh said, "I am not standing for this insulting deal". When the lawyers still refused, he got upset. He repeated his statement and pounded his fist on the table when he said "not" and "insulting" to make sure his point was clear.
Andrew was just back from his week-long fishing trip in Panama. He told his friend about the big fish he caught and demonstrated the size of it by holding up his palms facing each other about 1 meter apart.
Rosemary's boyfriend didn't make any plans for her birthday. He suggested that they eat some leftovers and just watch some TV. Although Rosemary was very upset, she said quietly, quickly, and without a smile: "No, that's fine. Whatever works for you. I'm happy."
Dre noticed that Ruby wasn't having a good time at the party. When he asked her what was wrong, she didn't say anything. She just frowned, looked down at her feet and sighed heavily. Dre knew right away that this meant she was still struggling with the news of her rejection from law school.
Relationship-level meaning of Nonverbal Communication (5)
Responsiveness: use eye contact, inflections, facial expressions, and body posture to show interest in others.
Liking: nonverbal behaviors are keen indicators of whether we feel positive or negative about others. Smiles and friendly touching among Westerners usually are signs of positive feelings, whereas frowns and belligerent postures express antagonism.
Power: use nonvernal behaviors to assert dominance and to negotiate status.
Types of Nonverbal Behaviors (5)
Kinesics (face and body motion), Haptics (touch), physical appearance, olfactics (smell), artifacts (personal objects), proxemics (personal space), environmental factors, chronemics (perception and use of time), paralanguage (vocal qualities), and silence.
Refers to body position and body motions, including those of the face, that may be used to communicate or may be interpreted as communicating. Ex: Body postures and gestures may signal whether we are open to interaction. Our faces are intricate messengers. Our eyes communicate important and complex messages about how we feel and we often look at others' eyes to judge their emotions, honesty, and self confidence.
Jake was preparing for his interview by doing practice runs with his roommate. He spoke clearly and his suit was well-fitting, but his roommate said that he needed to sit up straight, stop fidgeting and walk more confidently.
Which type of nonverbal behavior does Jake need to improve? (5)
Nonverbal communication involving physical touch. Touch lies at the heart of much of human experience and suggests some general sex differences in touching behavior.
Which of the following is the best example of a message communicated using haptics? (5)
Maja felt so bad because her roommate just found out her mom has cancer. To try to offer some comfort, she put her arm around her shoulders.
Physical appearance (5)
A form of nonverbal communication; how we look, including the cultural meanings, values, and expectations associated with looks. It prescribe ideals for physical form, and these vary across cultures and over time. This general cultural standard for attractiveness is modified by ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Physical appearance includes physiological characteristics, such as eye color and height, as well as ways in which we manage, or even alter, our physical appearance.
Olfactics (smell) (5)
Term for odors and scents- or more precisely, our perception of them. The smell of freshly baked bread or cookies often makes us feel happy (and hungry). Also, scents we choose to wear can be personal signatures.
Body odors produced by __________, the sex-specific chemicals our bodies produce may affect sexual attraction.
Any personal objects we use to announce our identities or personalizes one's environment. We use artifacts to reflect distinct organizational identities, define settings and personal territories, to express cultural and ethnic identities.
Form of nonverbal communication that involves space and how we use it. Space, specifically individual space varies from culture to culture. It announces status, with greater space and more desirable space assumed by those with higher status in culture. The arrangement of space may reflect closeness and desire, or lack of desire, for interaction. The ways the offices are arranged may invite or discourage interaction and may foster equal or unequal power relationships.
Hall (1968) says that every culture has norms for using space and for how close people should be to one another. This is reflective of which type of nonverbal behavior?
Environmental factors (5)
Element of setting that affect how we feel, think, and act. Restaurants use environmental factors to control how long people eat. In the same way restaurants and other public places use environmental factors to influence mood and behavior, we choose colors, furniture arrangements, lighting, and other objects to create the atmosphere we desire in our homes.
Restaurants use ___________ to control how long people spend eating. For example, low lights, comfortable chairs or booths and soft music often are part of the ambiance in upscale restaurants.
Environmental factors (5)
Refers to how we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction. We use time to negotiate and convey status. It express cultural attitudes toward time and how many other cultures have far more relaxed attitudes toward time and punctuality. Western societies value time and its cousin, speed. The length of time we spend with different people reflects the extent of our interest in them and affection for them. It also involves expectations of time, which are influenced by social norms.
We use time to negotiate and convey status. From studies in chronemics, researchers have found that in Western societies, people with high status __________ while people with low status __________. (5)
can keep people waiting; are expected to be punctual
Communication that is vocal but not verbal. It includes accent, inflection, volume, pitch, and sounds such as murmurs and gasps. Vocal cues signal others to interpret what we say (as a joke, a threat, a statement of fact, a question, and so forth), and to communicate feelings to friends/romantic partners. Our voices affect how others perceive us/influence image of us. Our ethnic heritage and identification influence how we use our voices.
Lack of sound; it can be very powerful. Silence- what it means- is linked to culture. Some parents discipline children by ignoring them. Also, audiences sometimes shut down speakers they dislike.
Silence can convey ___________ when relational partners are so comfortable, they don't need to talk.
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