Nature vs. Nurture
Controversy as to which has more effect, genetics or the environment when attempting to explain human behavior
basic structural unit of a living thing
inner area of a cell that contains chromosomes and genes
rod shaped structures that carry genes (thread like strands of DNA)
basic building blocks of heredity, determine our individual biological development
a spiraling, complex molecule containing genes
biochemical sequences that defines genes
Common sequence of nucleotide letters that are within human DNA a profile that makes us human
Groups of genes that determine human traits. (behaviors)
Look for patterns of inheritance of genetic markers in large families in which a particular condition is common
A segment of DNA that varies among individuals and has a known location on a chromosome and can function as a genetic land mark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.
Molecular structure and function of genes (identify the specific genes that influence behavior)
The idea that traits that help lead to increased survival or reproduction will most likely be passed on to future generation.
error in gene replication
study of evolution of behavior using the principle of natural selection
emphasizes an evolutionary explanation of social behavior
Socially learned behaviors and expectations that are associated with the two sexes
Physical features signifying that one is either a male or female
Genetic and environmental influences on behavior (study individual differences)
Every non-genetic influence
Develop from a single egg that splits; genetically idetical
develps from two seperate eggs
Concordance (Concordance Rates)
The degree o similarity in pairs of twins with respect to the presence of absence of a particular disease or trait.
-Share Personality Traits
_Identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins
Inborn emotional excitability
Intense, fidgety, excitable, nervous; may have symptoms of anxiety in later years
easy-going, quiet, placid; easygoing and extroverted in later years
New York Longitudinal Study
(Chess and Thomas 1996)
EAsy going children: 40%
- playful and respond positively to new stimuli
-react negatively to new situations or people, irritable disposition, difficult time establishing sleeping and eating schedules.
-inhibited children low activity levels, avoid novel stimuli, require more time to adjust, react to unfamiliar situations by becoming withdrawn.
Molecular structure and function fo genes
10% influence their children
Experience and Brain Development
The more you work your brain the more extensive your brain can be
May exceed parental influences
Food you eat, language, adn accent
Rules for accepted and expected behavior
self-replicating ideas, fashion, and innovations passed from person to person
Sex chromosomes found in both females and males
Men have one females have two
sex chromosome found in only lales
Male sex hormone
A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in a position out to behave
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
one's sense of being male of female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
Social Learning Theory
We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punsihed
How we form our conceptions and perceptions based on social context
Gender Schema Theory
We learn from our cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and we adjust our behavior accordingly
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