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AP Psychology Myers Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
Nature vs. Nurture
Controversy as to which has more effect, genetics or the environment when attempting to explain human behavior
Cell
basic structural unit of a living thing
Nucleus
inner area of a cell that contains chromosomes and genes
Chromosomes
rod shaped structures that carry genes (thread like strands of DNA)
Genes
basic building blocks of heredity, determine our individual biological development
DNA
a spiraling, complex molecule containing genes
Nucleotides
biochemical sequences that defines genes
Genome
Common sequence of nucleotide letters that are within human DNA a profile that makes us human
Gene Complexes
Groups of genes that determine human traits. (behaviors)
Linkage Studies
Look for patterns of inheritance of genetic markers in large families in which a particular condition is common
Genetic Markers
A segment of DNA that varies among individuals and has a known location on a chromosome and can function as a genetic land mark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.
Molecular Genetics
Molecular structure and function of genes (identify the specific genes that influence behavior)
Charles Darwin
The idea that traits that help lead to increased survival or reproduction will most likely be passed on to future generation.
Mutation
error in gene replication
Evolutionary psychology
study of evolution of behavior using the principle of natural selection
Sociobiology
emphasizes an evolutionary explanation of social behavior
Gender
Socially learned behaviors and expectations that are associated with the two sexes
Sex
Physical features signifying that one is either a male or female
Behavior Genetics
Genetic and environmental influences on behavior (study individual differences)
Environment
Every non-genetic influence
Identical twins
Develop from a single egg that splits; genetically idetical
Fraternal twins
develps from two seperate eggs
Concordance (Concordance Rates)
The degree o similarity in pairs of twins with respect to the presence of absence of a particular disease or trait.
Seperated Twins
-Share Personality Traits
_Identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins
Temperament
Inborn emotional excitability
Jerome Kagan
Reactive
Intense, fidgety, excitable, nervous; may have symptoms of anxiety in later years
Non-reactive
easy-going, quiet, placid; easygoing and extroverted in later years
New York Longitudinal Study
(Chess and Thomas 1996)
EAsy going children: 40%
- playful and respond positively to new stimuli
Difficult Children
-react negatively to new situations or people, irritable disposition, difficult time establishing sleeping and eating schedules.
Slow-to warmup
-inhibited children low activity levels, avoid novel stimuli, require more time to adjust, react to unfamiliar situations by becoming withdrawn.
Interaction
gene-environmental interaction
Molecular Genetics
Molecular structure and function fo genes
PArents
10% influence their children
political affiliatioin
religion
Experience and Brain Development
The more you work your brain the more extensive your brain can be
PEer influence
May exceed parental influences
Culture
Food you eat, language, adn accent
Norms
Rules for accepted and expected behavior
Personal space
Buffer Zone
MEmes
self-replicating ideas, fashion, and innovations passed from person to person
X Chromosome
Sex chromosomes found in both females and males
Men have one females have two
Y chromosomes
sex chromosome found in only lales
Testosterone
Male sex hormone
Role
A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in a position out to behave
Gender Role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
Gender identity
one's sense of being male of female
Gender-typed
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
Social Learning Theory
We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punsihed
Social-cognitive theory
How we form our conceptions and perceptions based on social context
Gender Schema Theory
We learn from our cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and we adjust our behavior accordingly