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bio 8.1-8.11

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chromosomes
structures that contain most of the organisms DNA
cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
binary fussion
dividing in half.
chromatin
combo of DNA and protein molecules, diffuse mass of long fibers
sister chromatids
identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S(DNA replication) subphase of interphase
centromere
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together called "waist"
cell cycle
ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell, until its own division into two identical daughter cells
interphase
(growing stage) (growing stage) when cell roughly doubles everything in cytoplasm and precisely duplicates its chromosomal DNA, metabolic activity is very high, cell performs its various functions in the organism, and increases supply of proteins, and cytoplasmic organelles
mitotic phase
the part of the cell cycle when mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells.
G1 Phase
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
S Phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G2 Phase
stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
centrosomes
clouds of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain centrioles
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
anchorage dependence
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.
density-dependent inhibition
crowded cells need a solid surface to divide
growth factor
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
cell cycle control system
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
cancer cells
Don't respond to the normal controls of cell division and divide excessively producing tumors
tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that develop when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably
benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.
malignant tumor
a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
carcinomas
cancers that originate in the external or internal coverings of the body
sarcomas
cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles
leukemias and lymphomas
cancers of blood forming tissues
prophase
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
prometaphase
the second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids.
anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
telophase and cytokinesis
spindle dissapears; two nuclear envelopes reform