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structures that contain most of the organisms DNA

cell division

the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells

binary fussion

dividing in half.


combo of DNA and protein molecules, diffuse mass of long fibers

sister chromatids

identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S(DNA replication) subphase of interphase


a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together called "waist"

cell cycle

ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell, until its own division into two identical daughter cells


(growing stage) (growing stage) when cell roughly doubles everything in cytoplasm and precisely duplicates its chromosomal DNA, metabolic activity is very high, cell performs its various functions in the organism, and increases supply of proteins, and cytoplasmic organelles

mitotic phase

the part of the cell cycle when mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells.

G1 Phase

stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions

S Phase

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

G2 Phase

stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes


organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

mitotic spindle

An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.


clouds of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain centrioles

cleavage furrow

The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.

cell plate

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.

anchorage dependence

the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.

density-dependent inhibition

crowded cells need a solid surface to divide

growth factor

a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

cell cycle control system

A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

cancer cells

Don't respond to the normal controls of cell division and divide excessively producing tumors


a mass of abnormal cells that develop when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably

benign tumor

A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.

malignant tumor

a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body


cancers that originate in the external or internal coverings of the body


cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles

leukemias and lymphomas

cancers of blood forming tissues


the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes


the second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids.


the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

telophase and cytokinesis

spindle dissapears; two nuclear envelopes reform

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