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OMS2 Neuro Anatomy (8-3-15 Fall 2015) (24 Pg PDF)
Terms in this set (81)
Cebral cortex composition
Cell bodies (gray matter)
thrown into folds (gyri) with creases between them (sulci)
Sensory and motor gyri and association for analysis of cognitive thought
Cerebrum divided by?
# of hemispheres and # of major divisions
3 major divisions
3 major divisions of the Cerebrum (telencephalon)
1 Cerebral cortex
2 Subcortical white matter
3 Prominent group of cell bodies (basal nuclei ganglia) involved in motor function
Subcortical white matter function
myelinated axons carrying information to and from cortex
Largest and most organized structure of the internal capsule?
Subcortical white matter
4 lobes of the cerebrum
1 Frontal lobe
1 FL: motor and limbic
Frontal lobe gyri (4)
Functions of each
Precentral gyrus- integrates motor function controlling voluntary motor function
Premotor cortex (Superior, middle, inferior)- Broca's motor speech area
What does the Parietal lobe process?
3 gyrus of the parietal lobe
1 Postcentral gyrus
2 Superior parietal lobule
3 Inferior parietal lobule ( supramarginal and angular gyri)
Postcentral gyrus receives what type of info?
somesthetic (tactile) info
Lobule that consists of a portion of Wernicke's area
What associations are involved in this area?
Inferior parietal lobule
Temporal lobe involved in what processes?
1 Auditory (think of its location)
2 Learning and memory (deeper structures)
Temporal lobe gyri (4)
3 lateral temporal lobe gyri:
1 deep lateral gyri:
Function of Heschl's gyrus
Primary auditory area
Occipital lobe gyrus (2)
1 Cuneus (wedge) gyrus
2 Lingual (tongue) gyrus
Occipital lobe involved in what type of processing?
ID each circled region
Black/blue: Corpus Collosum
Visual associational gyri
Paracentral gyrus -
part of the motor homunculus representing the foot and lower extremity and sensory homunculus representing the genitalia, foot, and lower extremity
part of the 5th lobe known as the limbic lobe
Many other structures are PART OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM that controls mood, emotions, behaviors, learning, and visceral processes
Huge AXONAL Fiber bundle that relays info to and from RIGHT and LEFT HEMISPHERES
4 parts of Corpus Collasum?
Name the 2 areas seen in the Ventral (inferior) surface of the brain
Lateral: Orbital gyri
Medial: Gyrus rectus
What structure can be found between the Gyrus rectus (straight gyrus) and the orbital gyri?
Olfactory bulb and tract
Label temporal lobe regions (3 gyri)
Medial to lateral
Inferior Temporal gyrus
What two structures are located DEEP in the Parahippocampal gyrus?
What SYSTEM are these structures part of?
Uncus Amygdala and Hippocampus
Name the structures circled
***** with Nuc CC and Put Pali on the Glob
Basal nuclei (ganglia)
Involved in what type of integration?
What structures are part of this (5)
Substantia nigra and Subthalamus part of what structures
Subst-Part of midbrain of the brain stem
Subthalamus- part of diencephalon
Diencephalon (4 major areas)
1 dorsal thalamus (purple)
4 epithalamus (pineal gland =maroon little circle on very right)
Integrates and relays sensory and motor info
Regulates autonomic and visceral function, synthesizes hormones
major structure of epithalamus is the pineal gland that converts serotonin to melatonin
ID yellow region in the Diencephalon area
Fornix- axonal fibers that leave the HIPPOCAMPUS and PROJECT to the HYPOTHALAMUS or SEPTAL AREAS
ID RED region in the Diencephalon area
Anterior commissure-Axonal fibers that relay information to and from the temporal lobes
ID GREEN region in the Diencephalon area
Posterior commissure- Axonal fibers that are part of the the visual system
tissue layer that separates the 2 lateral ventricles
Name the structures (3)
Brainstem functions (4)
1 Relays info to and from cortex via axons
2 Auditory and visual processing
3 Autonomic responses such as heart rate and respiration
4 Sensory and motor function of the face
3 major areas of Brainstem
3 Medulla Oblongata
Green: Spinal Cord
Monitors and coordinates MUSCLE activity
Spinal cord function
relay info to and from cortex
nuclei that are involved in sensory and motor processing of body functions
Structures found on ANTERIOR Midbrain
Cerebral peduncles: descending axons involved in motor functions
Cranial nerve 3 (occulomotor nerve)
Structures found on POSTERIOR Midbrain
1 Superior colliculus: Visual processing
2 Inferior colliculus Auditory processing
3 Cranial nerve 4 (trochlear nerve)
Which ways do the nerve fibers project at the midline among CN 3 Vs CN 4?
CN 3 anterior at midline
CN4 posteriorly at midline
Pons relays info to?
Cerebellum and descending motor tracts
What cranial nerves project from the pons?
Posteriorl or Anterior side?
What are found on the posterior side of the pons?
1 Superior cerebellar peduncle
4 Superior Cerebellar Velum
5 Facial colliculus
A) 3 pairs of cerebellar peduncles on posterior area of pons
B) Superior medullary velum
A: Efferent and afferent axons associated with the cerebellum
B: makes roof of 4th ventricle
CELL BODIES of what nerve and AXONS of what nerve are located at the Facial Colliculus?
CB of CN 6 and AXONS of CN 7
What tumors form where the pons, cerebellum, and medulla meet?
What CNs can be impinged and cause specific deficits
Cerebellar pontine angle
Vestibular Scwannomas or acoustic neuromas
CN 8 first and then CN 7
Medulla anterior region contains (3)
Contain descending motor fibers
Cell bodies of neurons in the auditory pathway
CN of Medulla
Medulla posterior (2 structures)
1 Cuneate tubercle
2 Gracile tubercle
Medial bumps, contains cell bodies that are part of the somatosensory pathway
Lateralbumps, contains cells bodies of the above mentione pathway
What cells line the ventricles in the brain?
Function of these cells?
Ependymal cells of the choroid plexus: convert plasma into CSF
Name the ventricles and passages in the brain
Lateral ventricle leads to 3rd ventricle via interventricular foramen then through the cerebral aquaduct you arrive to the 4th ventricle between the pons and cerebellum
How does CSF get to subarachnoid space of meninges?
From the 4th ventricle through 3 foramina to enter subarachnoid space
Third ventricle boundaries (2)
4th ventricle boundaries (3)
3 Medulla oblongota
What are the 3 meninges of the brain from superficial to deep?
Dura mater: outermost layer, very thick, contains venous sinuses
Arachnoid membrane: contains projections (arachnoid trabeculae) that extend out to the pia mater giving spider web look
(Subarachnoid space containing CSF and the projections)
Pia Mater: innermost layer
What meningeal layer is the superior sagittal layer inside of?
(between the periosteal dura mater and meningeal dura mater)
Areas where the subarachnoid space expands
List the major cisterns
How is CSF eliminated?
Arachnoid granulations that protrude into the superior sagittal sinus
condition when CSF flow is obstructed
2 dural reflections of the brain
1 Falx cerebri (between cerebral hemispheres)
2 Tentorium cerebelli (between cerebrum and cerebellum)
What are A and B
A: Crista Galli
B: Straight Sinus
Name all the venous sinuses of the brain
(Anterior to posterior)
Superior Petrosal Sinus
Confluence of sinuses
Superior/Inferior sagittal sinus
The tentorium cerebelli creates what two compartments?
2) Infra-tentorial (posterior cranial fossa)
Two structures in the brain that are commonly disturbed due to pressure changes?
Temporal tumors lead to what changes in the skull?
Pressure increases in the Supra-tentorial compartment leading to the Uncus herniating into the tentorial notch (incisura) and impinging on the brain
Cerebellar tumors cause what to occur in the brain?
Increase in pressure in the Intra-tentorial compartment
Pushes tonsils into foramen magnum compressing medulla which contains cardiovascular and resp centers and reticular formation
Leads to coma
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