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APES Chapter 1: Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability
Terms in this set (45)
All external conditions, factors, matter, and energy, living and non-living, that affect any living organism or other specified system.
Interdisciplinary study that uses information and ideas from the physical science, with those from the social science and humanities, to learn how nature works, how we interact wit the environment, and how we can help deal with environmental problems.
Biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their environment; study of the structure and function of nature.
Any form of life
Group of similar organisms, and for sexually reproducing organisms, they are a set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring. Every organism is a member of a certain species.
One or more communities of different species interacting with one another and wit the chemical and physical factors making up their nonliving environment.
Variety of different species, genetic variability among individuals with each species, variety of ecosystems, and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities.
Natural processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms from the nonliving environment to living organisms and then back to the nonliving environment.
Natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support our economies.
Materials such as air, water, and soil and energy in nature that are essential or useful for life.
Processes of nature, such as purification of air and water and pest control, which supports life and economies.
Anything obtained from the environment to meet human needs and wants. It can also be applied to other species.
Essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time because it is renewed continuously.
Resource that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes as long as it is not used faster that it is replaced.
Highest rate at which perpetually renewable can be used indefinitely with reducing its available supply.
Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in the Earth's crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical and chemical processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years.
To use a product over and over again in the same form
To collect and reprocess a resource so that it can be made into new products; one of the three R's of resource use.
Increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services; an increase in gross domestic product (GDP)
gross domestic product
Annual market value of all goods and services produces by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
per capita GDP
Annual gross domestic product of a country divided by its total population at midyear. It gives the average slice of the economic pie per person. Used to be called the gross national product (GNP).
Improvement of human living standards by economic growth
Country that is highly industrialized and had a high per capita
Country that has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GDP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment.
Broad and diffuse areas, rather than points, from which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air.
pollution cleanup (output pollution control)
Device or process that removes or reduces the level of a pollutant after it has been produced or has entered the environment.
pollution prevention (input pollution control)
Device, process, or strategy used to prevent a potential pollutant from forming or entering or to sharply reduce the amount entering the environment
Wealth that results in high levels of consumption and unnecessary waste and resources, based mostly on the assumption that buying more and more material goods will bring fulfillment and happiness.
Amount of biological productive land and water needed to supply a population with the renewable resources it uses and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from such resource use. It is a measure of the average environmental impact of populations in different countries and areas.
per capita ecological footprint
Amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply each person or population with the renewable resources they use and to absorb or dispose of the wastes from some resources used. It measures the average environmental impact of individuals or populations in different countries and areas.
ecological tipping point
Point at which an environmental problem reaches a threshold level, which causes an often irreversible shift in the behavior of a natural system.
Whole of a society's knowledge, beliefs, technology, and practices
Major cultural change in which people learn how to reduce their ecological footprints and live sustainably, largely by copying nature and using the three principles of sustainability, to guide their lifestyles and economies.
Growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic input, increases at constant per unit of time.
Inability of people to meet their basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
Set of assumptions and beliefs about how people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior
Human beliefs about what is right or wrong with how we treat the environment
planetary management worldview
Worldview holding that humans are separate from nature, that nature exits mainly to meet out needs and increasing wants, and that we can use our ingenuity and technology to manage the earth's life-support systems, mostly for our benefit. It assumes that economic growth is unlimited.
Worldview holding that we can manage the Earth for our benefit but that we have an ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers, or stewards, of the Earth. It calls for encouraging environmentally beneficial forms of economic growth and discouraging environmentally harmful forms.
environmental wisdom worldview
Worldview holding that humans are part of and totally dependent on nature and that nature exists for all species, not just for us. Our success depends on learning how the earth sustains itself and integrating such environmental wisdom into the ways we think and act.
environmentally sustainable society
Society that meets the current and future needs of its people for basic resources in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations of humans and other species from meeting their basic needs.
Renewable resources such as plants, animals, and soil provided by natural capital
Result of getting different people with different views and values to talk and listen to one another, find common ground based on understanding and trust, and work together
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