8: Biological Membranes
Terms in this set (39)
Collections of similar lipids with or without associated proteins that serve as attachment points for other biomolecules
Lipid rafts serve a role in
Lipid rafts and proteins travel
within the plane of the membrane
Lipids can move between membrane layers but this
is energetically unfavorable because the polar head of the lipid must be forced through the non-polar region of the membrane interior
Large membrane enzymes that flip phospholipids to the opposite leaflet of a membrane
All steriods are derived from
a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings: three 6-sided rings and one 5-sided ring.
Cells within tissues can form a
cohesive layer via intercellular junctions
Gap Junctions allow for
direct cell-cell communication and are often found in bunches together
Gap Junctions permit
movement of water and some solutes
Tight Junctions prevent
solutes from leaking into the space between cells
Tight junctions are found
in epithelial cells and function as a physical link between the cells as they form a single layer of tissue
adjacent cells by anchoring to their cytoskeletons
Desmosomes are primarily found
at the interface between two layers of epithelial tissue
main function is to attach epithelial cells to underlying (basement) membranes
Passive Transport Processes do not
require intracellular energy stores to move but rely on concentration gradients instead
the movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
Diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
Osmotic Pressure of the Solution
the amount of hydrostatic pressure required to oppose the osmotic movement of water
van't Hoff factor
number of particles obtained from a molecule when in solution
Osmotic pressure is directly proportional to
Molarity of the solution
Osmotic pressure is a colligative property and depends
only on the presence and number of particles in solution, but not their actual identity
Movement down a concentration gradient with aid of transport proteins. For molecules that are impermeable to the membrane.
In a biological membrane...small, nonpolar, lipid-soluble particles and water
can pass freely through the membrane
In a biological membrane...large, polar, charged particles
cannot pass freely through the membrane
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
A membrane transport process that carries two substances in the same direction across the membrane.
A membrane transport process that carries one substance in one direction and another in the opposite direction.
Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
The difference in electrical potential across cell membranes is called
Maintaining membrane potential requires
energy because ions may passively diffuse through the membrane over time using leak channels
One of the main functions of the Sodium-Potassium pump is to maintain a
low concentration of sodium ions intracellulary
A second function of the Sodium-Potassium pump is to maintain a
high concentration of sodium potassium ions intracellularly
The outer mitochondrial membrane is
highly permeable due to many large pores that allow for the passage of ions and small proteins.
The inner mitochondrial membrane is
much more restrictive than the outer membrane
The inner mitochondrial membrane surrounds the
The citric acid cycle housed in the
The inner mitochondrial membrane does not
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