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Which of the following brain chemicals appears to be involved in the biological aspects of drug addiction?


As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of _____.


Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:

decreasing the amount time spent in REM sleep.

Genetic predispositions and variations in neurotransmitter systems are _____ influences on the onset of drug abuse.


According to the World Health Organization, approximately how many people suffer from addiction?

90 million

In research examining genes and neurons on addiction, which of the following neurotransmitters appears to be involved?


The need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued, is known as _____ dependence.


Patients who have experienced _____ lobe seizures have reported profound mystical experiences, sometimes similar to those of near-death experiences.


The experience of physical pain following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates _____.


The brain chemical _____ appears to be involved in the biological aspects of drug addiction.


The need for a drug to relieve negative emotions is known as:

psychological dependence.

The psychoactive drug _____ produces a quick and very powerful rush of euphoria.


In research examining genes and neurons on addiction, the neurotransmitter _____ appears to be involved.


As the body is flooded by an artificial opiate, like heroin, the brain stops producing its own natural opiates called:


Which of the following is an UNTRUE statement about college students and drug use?

Membership in fraternities or sororities does not influence consumption of alcohol.

Neuroadaptation is most likely to contribute to which of the following?

drug tolerance

Nicotine triggers a(n) _____ in anxiety and a(n) _____ in mental alertness.

decrease; increase

Educational, psychological, and social factors may help explain why 26 percent of U.S. high school dropouts, but only 6 percent of people with a postgraduate education _____.


Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep and reduce anxiety. They belong to this class of medications.


The major active ingredient in marijuana is:


Marge just discovered that she needs to go on morphine after a car accident left her in pain. How nervous should she be at the possibility of becoming addicted?

She should be somewhat nervous as about 10% of people have difficulty stopping taking any psychoactive drug.

_____ created LSD in 1943.

Albert Hoffmann

a small pair of nuclei in the hypothalamus thought to be involved in the regulation of physiological circadian rhythms and does not describe an approach to addiction


Chemicals that change perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses are referred to as:

psychoactive drugs.

Nicotine triggers a decrease in anxiety and a(n) _____ in mental alertness.


The need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued, is known as:

physical dependence.

Alcohol initially produces feelings of euphoria, talkativeness, and outgoing behavior because it:

depresses activity in the brain regions involved with self-control and judgment, lowering inhibitions.

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