Government: Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (41)
Magna Carta established this, in which the power of the monarch, or government, was limited, not absolute
Great Charter, this document roved the protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty, and property except according to law. under this document, the king agreed that certain taxes could not be levied without ocular consent. the rights in this document applied only to the nobility
Petition of Rights
severely limiting the king's power for everyone
English Bill of Rights
set clear limits on what a Ruler could and could not do. It applied to the American colonists- who were English subjects as well as to the people in England.
a government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government .
Two Treatises On Government
Locke spelled out his political ideas in this novel first published in 1690
the Pilgrims signed in 1620 stands as the first example of many colonial plans for self-government, first written plan for a government
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1636 Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony to colonize Connecticut drew up America's first formal constitution, or charter. This document laid out a plan for government that gave the people the right to elect the governor, judges, and representatives to make laws.
Separation of Powers
divides the power of government between branches
legislative = create laws
executive= enforce laws, executive power
judicial= hear cases
of 1765 imposed the first direct tax on
the colonists. It required them to pay a tax on legal
documents, pamphlets, newspapers, and even dice and playing cards
the money a government
collects from taxes or other sources
In retaliation to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Coercive Acts called the Intolerable
Acts. One of these acts closed Boston Harbor.
Another withdrew the right of the Massachusetts
colony to govern itself.
Albany Plan of Union
Responding to French attacks on the frontier,
in 1754 Benjamin Franklin had proposed an innovative
plan for uniting the colonies
The colonies rejected the plan,
however, because it gave too much power to an assembly
made up of representatives from all thirteen
Committees of Correspondence
were urging resistance to the British. These committees
consisted of colonists who wanted to keep in touch with one another as events unfolded.
an agreement prohibiting trade
First Continental Congress
Acts prompted Virginia and Massachusetts
to call a general meeting of the colonies.
Delegates from all the colonies except Georgia met
in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, for the First
Second Continental Congress
three weeks, delegates from all thirteen colonies
gathered in Philadelphia for the Second Continental
Congress. This Congress assumed the powers of
a central government. It chose John Hancock as president, voted to organize an army and navy and
to issue money, and made George Washington
commander of a newly organizing Continental
Army. served as the acting
government of the colonies throughout the
war. It purchased supplies, negotiated treaties, and
rallied support for the colonists' cause.
Declaration of Independence
asked Thomas Jefferson, a Virginia planter
known for his writing skills, to write the draft. For
the next two weeks, Jefferson worked alone on the
document. On June 28 Jefferson asked John Adams
and Benjamin Franklin to look over his draft. The
two men made only minor changes.
On July 2, 1776, the Congress approved Lee's
resolution. The colonies had officially broken with
Great Britain. The Congress then turned its attention
to Jefferson's draft. After considerable debate a
few passages were removed and some editorial
changes made. On July 4 Congress approved the
wrote the Declaration of independence
Articles of Confederation
The Articles basically continued
the structure and operation of government as established
under the Second Continental Congress.
The states wanted a confederation, or «league of
friendship," among the 13 independent states
rather than a strong national government.
of 1787, for
example, established the principle that the
territories owned by the government were to be
developed for statehood on an equal basis with
the older states.
In western Massachusetts
several hundred angry farmers armed
with pitchforks marched on the Springfield arsenal
to get weapons. Daniel Shays, a former captain
in the Revolutionary Army, led the farmers. Unable
to pay their mortgages some farmers in western
Massachusetts were jailed or had their property
taken from them. The farmers wanted to prevent
the courts from foreclosing on mortgages and
taking away their farms. To force the state to pass
laws to help them, the farmers threatened to lay
siege to Boston.
George Washington, retired
and living at his Mount Vernon
estate, was concerned about
problems that had arisen between Maryland and
his home state of Virginia. In 1785 he
invited representatives from both states to
Mount Vernon to discuss differences over
their currencies, import duties, and navigation
on the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay.
The meeting was very successful, inspiring Virginia's
representatives in 1786 to call all states
to another meeting
All the states except
Rhode Island sent delegates. The
state legislatures appointed 74 delegates
to the Convention, but only 55 attended. Of these,
39 took a leading role.
advocate of a strong national government.
His careful notes are the major source of information
about the Convention's work. Madison
is often called the Father of the Constitution
because he was the author of the basic plan of
government that the Convention eventually
(1) a strong nationallegislature
with two chambers, the lower one
to be chosen by the people and the upper chamber
to be chosen by the lower. The legislature would
have the power to bar any state laws it found unconstitutional;
(2) a strong national executive to be
chosen by the national legislature; and (3) a national
judiciary to be appointed by the legislature.
New Jersey Plan
called for government based on keeping
the major feature of the Articles of Confederation-
a unicameral legislature, with one vote for
each state. Congress, however, would be strengthened
by giving it the power to impose taxes and
regulate trade. A weak executive consisting of more
than one person would be elected by Congress. A
national judiciary with limited power would be
appointed by the executive.
because Roger Sherman
and the delegation from that state played a
key role on the committee, this plan was adopted
after long debate. The compromise suggested that
the legislative branch have two parts: (1) a House
of Representatives, with state representation based
on population. All revenue laws-concerning
spending and taxes-would begin in this house;and (2) a Senate, with two members
from each state. State legislatures
would elect senators.
The larger states would have
an advantage in the House of Representatives,
was to be based on population.
The smaller states would be protected
in the Senate, where each
state had equal representation.
Three-fifths of the enslaved people
were to be counted for both tax purposes and
or trade among the states, and foreign
favored the Constitution and was led by
many of the Founders. Their support came mainly from merchants and others in the cities and
opposed the new Constitution. They
drew support largely from the inland farmers and
laborers, who feared a strong national government.
The lines of support, however, were not
clearly drawn, and many city and business people
agreed with the opponents of the Constitution. criticized the Constitution for having been drafted in secrecy.
not sanctioned by law
was a strong opponent of the Constitution
or political disorder
To help win the battle in New York, Hamilton,
Madison, and John Jay published more than 80 essays
defending the new Constitution. Later they
were collected in a book