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35 terms

Chapter 12 Review Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called:
A. antibiotics
B. narrow-spectrum drugs
C. semisynthetic drugs
D. synthetic drugs
E. broad-spectrum drugs
A. antibiotics
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed:
A. antibiotics
B. narrow-spectrum drugs
C. semisynthetic drugs
D. synthetic drugs
E. broad-spectrum drugs
E. broad-spectrum drugs
Antibiotics are derived from all the following except:
A. Penicillium
B. Bacillus
C. Staphylococcus
D. Streptomyces
E. Cephalosporium
C. Staphylococcus
Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include:
A. low toxicity for human tissues
B. high toxicity against microbial cells
C. do not cause serious side effects in humans
D. stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids
E. all of the choices are correct
E. all of the choices are correct
Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause:
A. nephrotoxicity
B. superinfections
C. allergic reactions
D. drug toxicity
E. all of the choices are correct
B. superinfections
Penicillins and cephalosporins:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
Sulfonamides:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
Aminoglycosides:
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
D. damage cell membranes
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is:
A. synercid
B. penicillinase
C. aztreonam
D. clavulanic acid
E. imipenem
D. clavulanic acid
Gram negative rods are often treated with:
A. penicillin G
B. vancomycin
C. aminoglycosides
D. synercid
E. isoniazid
C. aminoglycosides
This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis:
A. penicillin G
B. vancomycin
C. aminoglycosides
D. synercid
E. isoniazid
E. isoniazid
Antimicrobics that are macrolides:
A. disrupt cell membrane function
B. include tetracyclines
C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin
D. are very narrow-spectrum drugs
E. are hepatotoxic
C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin
The drug that can cause aplastic anemia, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is:
A. chloramphenicol
B. clindamycin
C. ciprofloxacin
D. bacitracin
E. gentamicin
A. chloramphenicol
The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic-associated colitis is:
A. chloramphenicol
B. clindamycin
C. ciprofloxacin
D. bacitracin
E. gentamicin
B. clindamycin
The antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is:
A. nystatin
B. griseofulvin
C. amphotericin B
D. sulfa drugs
E. metronidazole
C. amphotericin B
The drug used for several protozoan infections is:
A. nystatin
B. griseofulvin
C. amphotericin B
D. sulfa drugs
E. metronidazole
E. metronidazole
Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections.
A. bacterial
B. fungal
C. protozoan
D. helminthic
E. virus
D. helminthic
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat _____ infections.
A. bacterial
B. fungal
C. protozoan
D. helminthic
E. virus
B. fungal
Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals?
A. block penetration
B. block transcription and translation
C. inhibit DNA synthesis
D. block maturation
E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include:
A. bacterial chromosomal mutations
B. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure
C. prevention of drug entry into the cell
D. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets
E. all of the choices are correct
E. all of the choices are correct
When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection.
True False
False
The antibiotic of the penicillin family is penicillin G.
True False
True
The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe.
True False
True
Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys.
True False
False
The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface.
True False
True
Kirby-Bauer method
3.) Antimicrobial susceptibility
Lantibiotics
1.) Nisin
Acyclovir
2.) Antiviral
Mefloquin
6.) Chloroquin-resistant malaria
Greseofulvin
7.) Athelet's foot
Ergosterol
8.) Polyene antifungal
Tetracycline
9.) Streptomyces
Clavulanic acid
5.) Inhibits beta-lactamase
Sulfonamide
10.) Synthetic antimicrobial
Prophylaxis
14.) Prevent infection