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24 terms

4.4 Psychoactive Drugs

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Psychoactive Drugs
chemical substances that can alter arousal, mood, thinking, sensation, and perception.
4 Categories
~ depressants (depress/inhibit brain activity)
~ opiates (morphine agonist; painkillers/euphoria)
~ stimulants (stimulate/exite brain activity)
~psychedelic drugs (distort sensory perceptions)
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
withdrawal symptoms
unpleasant physical or psychological effects following discontinued use of a drug, can include shakes or tremors, vomiting, blood pressure/heart rate changes
drug rebound effect
withdrawal from a drug makes you manifest the opposite symptoms that the drug produced.
drug abuse
the ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user's biological or psychological well-being.
Depressants
~alcohol
~barbiturates
~tranquilizers
alcohol
the most frequently used and abused CNS depressant in most cultures; its use affects mood, judgment, cognition
barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
tranquilizers
Depressant drugs that relieve anxiety.
Opiates
~natural (opium, morphine, codeine)
~synthetic (heroin, methadone, oxycontin)
opiates mimic endorphins, reduces brains perception of pain.
Stimulants
~Caffeine
~nicotine
~amphetamines
~cocaine
caffeine
a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, colas, and chocolate
nicotine
stimulant drug in tobacco that increases heart rate and blood pressure
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
cocaine
a natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant. produces intense euphoria, mental alertness, and self-confidence
stimulant-induced psychosis
schizophrenia-like symptoms develop.
Psychedelic Drugs
~Mescaline
~LSD
~Marijuana
mescaline
hallucinogenic substance found naturally in the peyote cactus.
LSD
powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
Marijuana
drug derived from the hemp plant.
Designer Drugs
~MDMA (ecstasy)
~PCP (angel dust)
~ketamine
ecstasy
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
PCP and ketamine
dissociative anesthetics that produce feelings of detachment and depersonalization. distortions of space, reality, and time are common. stimulates the release of endorphins in the brain.