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84 terms

Lab Exam 4

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Endomysium
Layer of connective tissue that surrounds an individual muscle fiber.
Epimysium
Layer of connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle.
Fascia
Connective tissue located between adjacent muscles.
Myosin
Protein found within thick filament.
Fascicle
A small bundle of muscle fibers.
Perimysium
Layer of connective tissue that separates a muscle into small bundles called fascicles.
Sarcolemma
Cell membrane of a muscle fiber.
Sarcomere
Unit of alternating light and dark striations between Z lines.
Sarcoplasm
Cytoplasm of a muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Cellular organelle in muscle fiber corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Tendon
Cordlike part that attaches a muscle to a bone.
Transverse (T) tubule
Membranous channel extending inward from muscle fiber membrane.
Astrocyte
Star-shaped neuroglia between neurons and blood vessels.
Axon
Nerve fiber arising from a slight elevation of the cell body that conducts an impulse away from the cell body.
Chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies)
Corresponds to rough endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
Collateral
Branch of an axon.
Dendrite
Neuron process with many branches that conducts an impulse toward the cell body.
Myelin Sheath
Substance of Schwann cell composed of lipoprotein that insulates axons and increases impulse speed.
Neurilemma
Sheath of Schwann cell containing cytoplasm and nucleus that encloses myelin.
Neurofibrils
Netowrk of fine threads extending into nerve fiber.
Effector
Structure capable of responding to motor impulse.
Ependymal Cell
Cells that cover the inside spaces of the brain ventricles and help regulate cerebrospinal fluid.
Ganglion
Specialized mass of neuron cell bodies outside the brain or spinal cord.
Interneuron
Transmits impulse from sensory to motor neuron withing central nervous system.
Microglia
Phagocytic neuroglia.
Motor (efferent) neuron
Transmits impulse out of the brain or spinal cord to effectors (muscles and glands).
Oligodendrocyte
Myelin-forming neuroglia in brain & spinal cord.
Sensory (afferent) neuron
Transmits impulse into brain or spinal cord from receptors.
31 pairs
Number of spinal nerves in the spinal cord.
Cervical enlargement
The bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the upper limbs.
Lumbar enlargement
The bulge in the spinal cord that gives off nerves to the lower limbs.
Posterior median sulcus
A groove that extends the length of the spinal cord posteriorly.
Posterior horns
Resemble the upper wings of a butterfly (in a spinal cord cross section).
Anterior horns
Where the cell bodies of motor neurons are found in the spinal cord.
Gray commissure
Connects the gray matter on the left and right sides of the spinal cord.
Central canal
Found in the gray commissure of the spinal cord & contains cerebrospinal fluid & is continuous with the ventricles of the brain.
Anterior, lateral, & posterior funiculi
The divisions of the spinal cord's white matter.
Nerve tracts
The longitudinal bundles of nerve fibers within the spinal cord comprise these major nerve pathways.
Central sulcus
Separates frontal & parietal lobes.
Cerebral Cortex
Thin layer of gray matter on surface of cerebrum.
Corpus callosum
Connects cerebral hemispheres.
Falx cerebelli
A layer of dura mater that separates cerebellar hemispheres.
Gyrus (convolution)
Ridge on surface of cerebrum.
Hypothalamus
Part of diencephalon that forms lower walls and floor of third ventricle.
Insula
Cerebral lobe located deep within lateral sulcus.
Medulla oblongata
Part of brainstem continuous with the spinal cord.
Midbrain
Part of brainstem between diencephalon and pons.
Optic chiasma
Structure formed by the crossing-over of the optic nerves.
Pineal gland
Cone-shaped structure attached to upper posterior portion of diencephalon.
Pons
Rounded bulge on underside of brainstem.
Auditory tube
Connects middle ear & pharynx.
Ceruminous gland
Wax-secreting structure.
External acoustic meatus
S-shaped tube leading to tympanic membrane.
Malleus
Auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane.
Membranous labyrinth
Contains endolymph.
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
Bony canal of inner ear in temporal bone.
Scala tympani
Extends from apex of cochlea to round window.
Scala vestibuli
Leads from oval window to apex of cochlea.
Stapes
Auditory ossicle attached to oval window.
Tectorial membrane
Contacts hairs of hearing receptors.
Tympanic cavity
Air-filled space containing auditory ossicles.
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Cone-shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to malleus.
Utricle & saccule
2 expanded chambers where the organs of static equilibrium are located.
Temporal bone
The bone where all the balance organs are located in the skull.
Macula
The structure in the wall of the membranous labyrinth where the receptor cells of the balance organs are found.
Calcium carbonate
Otoliths are small grains composed of this.
Vestibular nerve
The nerve where sensory impulses travel from the organs of equilibrium to the brain.
Ampulla
The swelling canal the sensory organ of a semicircular canal lies within
Crista ampullaris
The sensory organ within the ampulla of a semicircular canal.
Cupula
This part of the sensory organ that consists of a dome-shaped gelatinous mass.
Inertia of the fluid
Why when the head is moved, the fluid inside the membranous portion of a semicircular canal tends to remain stationary.
Cerebellum
This part of the brain interprets impulses from the equilibrium receptors.
Aqueous humor
Fills anterior & posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye.
Choroid coat
Posterior five-sixths of middle (vascular) tunic.
Ciliary muscles
Cause lens to change shape.
Conjunctiva
Inner lining of eyelid.
Cornea
Transparent anterior portion of outer tunic.
Iris
Smooth muscle that controls light entering the eye.
Lacrimal gland
Secretes tears.
Optic disc
Area where optic nerve exits the eye.
Retina
Contains visual receptors called rods & cones.
Sclera
White part of outer (fibrous) tunic.
Suspensory ligament
Connects lens to ciliary body.
Vitreous humor
Fills posterior cavity of eye.