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either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead respectively into the right and the left lung
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing
Expiratory Reserve Volume
maximal volume of air, usually about 1000 milliliters, that can be expelled from the lungs after normal expirat
superficial ones that expands thoracic cavity by elevating ribs, helps with inspiration
exchange of gases between the external environment and a distributing system of the animal body or between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood
anterior part of the palate, consisting of the bony palate covered above by the mucous membrane of the nose, and below by the mucoperiosteum of the roof of the mouth.
run between the ribs, deep to the external intercostals; are continuous with the internal obliques in the abdomen, depress the ribs during expiration
process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidised to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide
organ of voice; the air passage between the lower pharynx and the trachea, containing the vocal cords and formed by nine cartilages: the thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis and the paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages
cavity on either side of the nasal septum, extending from the nares to the pharynx, and lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth
throat; the musculomembranous cavity behind the nasal cavities, mouth, and larynx, communicating with them and with the esophagus
Respiratory Gas Transport
oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream
The movable fold, consisting of muscular fibers enclosed in mucous membrane, that is suspended from the rear of the hard palate and closes off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity during swallowing or sucking
Total Lung Capacity
the volume of gas in the lungs at the end of a maximum inspiration. It equals the vital capacity plus the residual capacity
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