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tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood


either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead respectively into the right and the left lung


muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down


thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing

Expiratory Reserve Volume

maximal volume of air, usually about 1000 milliliters, that can be expelled from the lungs after normal expirat

External intercostals

superficial ones that expands thoracic cavity by elevating ribs, helps with inspiration

External Respiration

exchange of gases between the external environment and a distributing system of the animal body or between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood

Hard Palate

anterior part of the palate, consisting of the bony palate covered above by the mucous membrane of the nose, and below by the mucoperiosteum of the roof of the mouth.

inspiratory tidal volume

amount of air breathed in during normal respiration

Internal intercostals

run between the ribs, deep to the external intercostals; are continuous with the internal obliques in the abdomen, depress the ribs during expiration

Internal respiratory

process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidised to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide

Intrapleural space

potential space included between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura


organ of voice; the air passage between the lower pharynx and the trachea, containing the vocal cords and formed by nine cartilages: the thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis and the paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages

Nasal Cavity

cavity on either side of the nasal septum, extending from the nares to the pharynx, and lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth


throat; the musculomembranous cavity behind the nasal cavities, mouth, and larynx, communicating with them and with the esophagus

Pulmonary Ventilation

The total volume of gas per minute inspired or expired

Residual Volume

the amount of gas remaining in the lung at the end of a maximal exhalation

Respiratory Gas Transport

oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream

Soft Palate

The movable fold, consisting of muscular fibers enclosed in mucous membrane, that is suspended from the rear of the hard palate and closes off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity during swallowing or sucking

Tidal Volume

The volume of air inspired or expired in a single breath during regular breathing

Total Lung Capacity

the volume of gas in the lungs at the end of a maximum inspiration. It equals the vital capacity plus the residual capacity


windpipe; the cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the left and right main bronchi

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