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3-10 thousand

How many different smells can humans distinguish?


cartilagenous growths on the lateral nasal wall that stir up the air


How many turbinates are there?

respiratory epithelium

ciliated epithelial cells that lines the nasal cavity and propels mucous along the surface

olfactory epithelium, below the cribriform plate

olfactory receptor cells surrounded by supporting cells. Where is it found?

depolarize them

What do odorants do to receptor cell cilia?

immature basal cells

What are constantly differentiated to become new olfactory receptor cells?


Where is the cell bodies of the olfactory receptor cells located?

dissolve odor gases

What is the function of Bowman's olfactory glands?


Which nerve innervates nasal mucosa?


Which nerve is responsible for "painful" smells such as ammonia?

olfactory bulb

The __________ is the rostral expansion of the olfactory tract

cribriform plate

What does the olfactory nerve pass through to reach the olfactory bulb?

mitral cell dendrites

Olfactory axons converge on what?

mitral cell axons

What carries information out of the olfactory bulb through the olfactory tract?

corticofugal fibers

What provides feedback to suppress smell?

periglomerular cells and granule cells

What types of cells modulate and control the transmission of olfactory impulses?

mitral cells

What makes up the olfactory tract?

ipsilateral bulb and contralateral bulb via the anterior commissure

Projections from the anterior olfactory nucleus go where?

primary olfactory cortex

Where does the lateral olfactory tract project to?

piriform cortex and periamygdaloid cortex

What are the two cortices of the primary olfactory cortex?

olfactory tubercle, entorhinal cortex, rostral uncus, corticomedial amygdala

What structures make up the secondary olfactory cortex?

CN 7,9,10

What CNs contribute to the sensation of taste?

taste buds

What holds receptors on the tongue?

taste and olfaction

perception of taste combines what two sensations?


How many taste receptor cells are found in a taste bud?

bitterness, sourness, saltiness, sweetness

What are the 4 basic elements of taste?

chorda tympani, facial

The Anterior 2/3 of the tounge is innervated by the _________ branch of the _________ nerve.

geniculate ganglion

Cell bodies for the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve are found where?

all 4

Which elements of taste can the facial nerve carry?


Which nerve innervates the posterior 1/3 of the toungue?

sweet and bitter

Which elements of taste can the glossopharyngeal nerve carry?

inferior ganglion

the cell bodies for the glossopharyngeal nerve are found where?


Which nerve innervates the epiglottis and esophagus?

inferior ganglion

The cell bodies for the vagus nerve are found where?


Which elements of taste can the epiglottis sense?

ipsilateral solitary tract to the rostral solitary nucleus

Taste sensation travels along what and terminates where?


Where do solitariothalamic neurons terminate in the thalamus?

inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent rostral insula

Where is the cortical taste area located?


What is the brodman's area for the cortical taste area?

paralysis of face muscles without loss of taste

What happens with a lesion of the facial nerve distal to the chorda tympani?


can you feel food with taste buds?


can you feel pain with your taste buds?


What nerve is responsible for tounge sensation?

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