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Unit 1.1: A Changing European Worldview
Terms in this set (47)
A French word meaning "rebirth," used to describe the rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity in Italy during the fourteenth century to sixteenth centuries
The Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe
A program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with the goal of understanding human nature
a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism
Concern for the capability and uniqueness of the individuals personality
the modern term for the moral, social and political philosophy that in the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries began to be articulated in Italian city-states and most notably in Florence
Invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was the Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for propaganda
denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church's ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church's delayed but forceful response to the Protestants.
Patronage of the arts
refers to the support that kings, popes and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints
style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, lasting until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it. Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century.
Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci,Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, often resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. Mannerism favors compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly florid style and intellectual sophistication.
Dramatic light, contrast, variety in subjects, "in the movement," rich colors, invisible compliment
Father of humanism, Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance
Lorenzo Valla was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. He is best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery.
Father of modern historical criticism
Pico Della Mirandola
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was an Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher. He is famed for the events of 1486, when at the age of 23, he proposed to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy
Leonardo Bruni was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance. He has been called the first modern historian
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science.
Famous work: the Prince
Jean Bodin was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse. He is best known for his theory of sovereignty; he was also an influential writer on demonology
Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author, who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier
Francesco Guicciardini was an Italian historian and statesman. A friend and critic of Niccolò Machiavelli, he is considered one of the major political writers of the Italian Renaissance
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art
Famous work: The David
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man
Filippo Brunelleschi was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor. He was the oldest amongst the founding fathers of the Renaissance.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music
Famous works: the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
Jan Van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and one of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists of the 15th century. Little is known of his early life.
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Pieter Bruegel the Elder was a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel"
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history
a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. The nickname "El Greco" refers both to his Greek origin and Spanish citizenship
Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio
Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian sculptor and architect. A major figure in the world of architecture, he was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture
Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation
How did the revival of classical texts affect scholarship and societal and religious values?
Art was more appreciated. There was a general rise in education and in humanities. (Liberal arts)
Explain what Renaissance humanism was and its effects.
That the human spirit and body are perfect
How did the invention of the printing press affect education and Protestant reformers?
More books were available
How did the ideas of Niccolo Machiavelli and Baldassare Castiglione reflect the values of civic humanism?
Both did things in a secular way
Explain how Renaissance ideals were expressed in the visual arts.
New styles start to come out
How did the works of Michaelangelo and Raphael use the new technique of visual perspective?
How did the works of Jan Van Eyck and Rembrandt reflect a human-centered naturalism?
They were inspired by the patronage not by the church.
How did the Mannerist and Baroque artists differ from Renaissance artists?
Mannerist and Baroque artists are more expressive and show more emotion.
How did politics and economics shape the Renaissance?
Economic growth laid the material basis for the Italian Renaissance, and ambitious merchants gained political power to match their Economic power. Then they used their money and power to buy luxuries and hire talent in a system of patronage. Political leaders in Italian cities admired the traditions and power of ancient Rome, and this esteem shaped their commissions. Thus economics, politics, and cultural were interconnected.
What new ideas were associated with the Renaissance?
Renaissance thinkers developed new notations of human nature, new plans for education, and new concepts of political rule. The advent of the printing press with movable type would greatly accelerate the spread of these ideas throughout Europe. In education they opened schools and academies in Italian cities.
How did art reflect the New Renaissance ideals?
In early Renaissance Italy, powerful urban groups often flaunted their wealth by commissioning works and art. For example, delegated Filippo Brunelleschi to build the dome on the cathedral of Florence and selected Lorenzo Ghiberti to design the bronze doors. Individual rulers started to sponsor works of art.
What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe?
The key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe are race, slavery, wealth, nobility, commoners, educated, uneducated, men, and women.
How did nation states develop in this period?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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