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16 terms

AP Psychology: Learning - Operant Conditioning

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operant conditioning/instrumental conditioning
conditioning in which an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior
Skinner box
named for its developer, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
shaping
selective reinforcement of behaviors that gradually approach (approximate) the desired response
method of successive approximations
sequence of stages used to elicit increasingly closer approximations of a desired behavior (methodical shaping)
reinforcer
any event that increases the probability of a recurrence of the response that preceded it
positive reinforcement
presentation of a stimulus after a particular response in order to increase the likelihood that a response will recur
negative reinforcement
removal of a stimulus (usually an aversive one) after a particular response to increase the likelihood that the response will occur
primary reinforcer
reinforcer (such as food, water, termination of pain) that has survival value for an organism; this value does not have to be learned
secondary reinforcer
any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organism but that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer
superstitious behavior
behavior learned through coincidental association with reinforcement
punishment
process of presenting an undesirable or noxious stimulus to decrease the probability that a preceding response will recur
Premack principle
the idea that probable behaviors (ex. socializing) can reinforce less probable/unlikely behaviors (ex: cleaning closets)
primary punisher
any stimulus or event that is naturally painful or unpleasant to an organism
secondary punisher
any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic negative value for an organism but acquires punishing qualities when linked with a primary punisher
learned helplessness
the behavior of giving up or not responding to punishment, exhibited by people or animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they have no control
omission training
process of removing a desirable stimulus to decrease the probability that a preceding response will recur