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History test review chap 12
Terms in this set (54)
The practice by which a high ranking person, such as an emperor, king, count, or lord could appoint bishops or abbots, "investing" them with power and requiring their loyalty.
To speak so as to come between; to forbid or to prohibit
efficacious sign of grace instituted by Christ, entrusted to the church; divine life is dispensed through the Holy Spirit
Against something for and in belief.
Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400's
The body, part of a body, or personal memorial of a saint, martyr, or other sacred person
the Crusades were a series of Holy Wars launched by the Christians during Europe's middle ages in order to liberate Jerusalem, the Holy Land, from Muslim rule,
One who does not accept a particular faith; an unbeliever
the study of a religion
School of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief
-this was the languege used by everyone everyday
Chanson de geste
a medieval historical romance in French verse, typically one connected with Charlemagne.
the prejudice, discrimination, dislike, and persecution of Jews
a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments.
Tax on nonpriveleged lands that tended to weigh heavier on peasants
Pope Gregory VII
Pope during the late 1000s. He removed a bishop that King Henry had put in charge of Milan. He then excommunicated Henry, continued to fight with him throughout the years regarding the election of certain authorities.
●Once given the title "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X for supporting the condemnation of M. Luther
Live simply wearing simple vestaments
A religious order founded by St. Francis and based on simplicity and poverty.
Another order of wandering monks
Pope Innocent III
Claimed he had power over all and could let or keep people out of heaven
Pope Urban II
Helped out the Byzantine Empire by calling on all Christian warriors to go and fight against the Turks. This was known as the First Crusade, and it grealty inspired the soldiers who fought. He made it clear that the goal was this: Protect the Holy Land.
Islam leader during 2nd and 3rd Crusade.
Led the 4th crusades
King Richard I
Led the 4th crusades
King Philip II
Led the 4th crusades
Wrote the summa theological and composed lyrics and music for religious fees that are still in use today in the Catholic liturgy
Father of English Literature who was the greatest poet of the middle ages; his titles included author and astronomer; he developed the "vernacular" and his greatest literary work was the "Canterbury Tales"
Popes of Avigon
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in today's France) rather than in Rome.
King Edward III
Edward III was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
King Philip VI
Philip VI, called the Fortunate and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death(Died: August 22, 1350)
. Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute.
Joan of arc
A young peasant girl who claimed that the saints had told her to lead the French in battle. She was allowed command of the army, and defeated a huge English army at Orleans. She lead the French to several other victories before she was captured and executed by the English.
King Henery VII
Henry VII, known before accession as Henry Tudor, 2nd Earl of Richmond, was King of England after seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death, the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
King Louis XI
Louis XI, called the Prudent, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483
Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella were the monarchs whose marriage created the union of Castile and Aragon which formed the Kingdom of Spain . Because of their religious zeal, they became known as the "Catholic monarchs."
A religious and military war fought to gain control of Jerusalem (Middle ages)
Was in 1096-1099 The crusades attaked the city of Atioch and a year later they scaled Jerusalem and made the city surrender and some crusaders went back many stayed for the crusade kingdom
Was in 1146-1148 Germany was beaten in Anatolia and 50,000 marched through the city of Demascus and Muslims from Army Odessa came to help and beat back the crusades
Salah-Al-Din formed te biggest Muslim empire and Richard led a new fight againest the crusaders and Palestine was the town of Acre where richards army was and Muslims agreed to let christians enter Jerusalem
Christian warriors sacked Zara and Constantinople, never making it to the Holy Land
A fatal disease known as the bubonic plague that killed one-third of the people in Europe. In 1347
The great schism
Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, between the Eastern Church and the Western Church in 1054. The Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1417.
The hundred years war
The Hundred Years' War is the modern term for a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the Kingdom of France.
Battle of cercy
The Battle of Crécy, also called Battle of Cressy, was an important English victory during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
Battle of agincourt
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. The battle took place on Friday, 25 October 1415, near Azincourt, in northern France.
Siege of Orleans
The Siege of Orléans (1428-1429) was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England. It was the French Royal army's first major military victory while Joan of Arc was with the army and the first to follow the crushing defeat at Agincourt in 1415
What issues caused the Catholic Church to begin losing its political power in Europe during the 1300s?
It had gotten involved with feudal lords who it now wanted to keep happy. It practiced simony, meaning it sold ecclesiastical offices to the highest bidder rather than people trained in the beliefs of the church. Also, many of the priests and monks were illiterate, meaning they couldn't perform many of their duties, caused the traditional three-tier structure to break down. Adding to that, many monks and priests were just corrupt and didn't keep their vows of chastity and poverty.
What was the role of saints in medieval Christianity and how did a person become one?
England & France signed treaty that Henry V would take king after French King Charles VI die
What new technologies caused the change from Romanesque architecture to Gothic architecture in Europe?
The old style of Romanesque architecture, with its rounded ceilings, huge thick walls, small windows and dim interiors had been replaced by soaring Gothic arches, thin walls, and huge stained glass windows, which flooded the interiors with light.
What were the first universities established in Europe and what did the students study at these universities?
The first Western European institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, England, France, Spain, and Portugal between 11th and 14th centuries for the study of the Arts and the higher disciplines of Theology, Law, and Medicine.
How did the events in Europe during the 1200s and 1300s led to stronger monarchies and unified nations ?
After decline of Rome, Western Europe fell under rule of many different groups of people
●Fighting occurred almost constantly among these groups
●Feudalism emerged as a form of government that offered protection
-●Except for Charlemagne, kings had very little power because their lands & power was transferred to the nobles
●BUT, in 1100s European monarchs (kings) began to build strong nation-states
England & France were Europe's 1st nation-states
●The role of the monarchy (king) grew stronger in England & France in the 1300s
●The growth of nations led to the beginning of Nationalism (loyalty to a nation-state rather than feudal lord)
What were the causes and effects of the Black Death in Europe?
Buying on Margin, speculation (bank runs), wealth not evenly distributed (overproduction), installment debt (overproduction), decline in foreign trade, prosperity in 1920s didn't help farmers
What was the role of religion in medieval Europe and how did it influence the people in Europe ?
Religion was far more important in almost every area of medieval life than it is in most modern societies. The vast majority of people in Europe followed the Christian religion under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. The church in that era had great wealth, political power and influence over community life, art, architecture and education.
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