27 terms

Unit 3: The Cell

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Terms in this set (...)

Diffusion
Passive Transport
Direction: High to Low
Transport: Through lipid bilayer
Does not require energy
Types of particles: Small, ions (usually gases)
Examples: Carbon dioxide, oxygen, sodium, chlorine
Osmosis
Passive Transport
Direction: High to low
Transport: Through aquaporins
Does not require energy
Type of particles: Only water
Examples: Water (that's it)
Facilitated Diffusion
Passive Transport
Direction: High to low
Transport: Through transport proteins (channel or carrier)
Does not require energy
Types of particles: Medium-sized particles
Examples: Glucose or amino acids
Protein Pumps
Active Transport
Direction: Low to high
Transport: Sodium-potassium pump
Requires energy
Types of particles: Small and medium-sized particles
Examples: Sodium, chlorine, glucose, amino acids, other nutrients
Endocytosis
Active Transport
Direction: Into cell
Transport: Vesicles and membrane changing
Requires energy
Types of particles: Huge molecules
Examples: Macromolecules, proteins, enzymes, DNA
Exocytosis
Active Transport
Direction: Out of cell
Transport: Vesicles and membrane changing
Requires energy
Types of particles: Huge molecules
Examples: Macromolecules, proteins, enzymes, DNA
Selectively Permeable
The ability to allow some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others
Cholesterol
Steroid found within the phospholipid bilayer than keeps membrane solid when under heat
Phospholipid
Composed of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. Makes up most of the cell membrane
Integral Protein
Type of protein found within the phospholipid bilayer
Peripheral Protein
Type of protein found on the surface inside and out of the cell in the phospholipid bilayer
Glycoprotein
Protein that have carbohydrates/glycocalyx attached to it
Hypertonic
More solute in the environment
Hypotonic
Less solute in the environment
Isotonic
Equal amount of solute
Channel Protein
Protein that haves a pore for material to cross
Passive
Carrier Protein
Protein that can change shape to move material from one side of a membrane to the other
Passive and Active
Enzymatic Proteins
Protein that initiate reactions directly at the membrane site
ATP
The cell's source of energy
Exergonic
Releases energy
ATP -> ADP + P
Endergonic
Absorbs energy
ADP + p -> ATP
Coupling
Living systems couple endergonic with exergonic reactions
Kinetic Energy
Energy of movement
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in bonds
Enzyme
Functional protein
Used to catalyze chemical reactions by decreasing the amount of activation energy needed for reaction to occur
Competitive Inhibitor
Takes place of normal substrate
Does not change shape of active site
Usually reversible
Non-competitive Inhibitor
Attached to the allosteric site
Changes the shape of the enzyme and the active site
Many are non-reversible

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