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25 terms

Ch. 14 Middle Ages Vocabulary

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William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
King John
abused his power and was forced by his nobles to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 C.E.
Hugh Capet
elected as king by feudal nobles in France; established Capetian Dynasty of French kings
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who was inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English during the Hundred Years War. She helped France win the Hundred Years War and to have Charles VII crowned king of France.
Chaucer
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Canterbury Tales
A poem by Geoffry Chaucer that follows a band of English pilgrims traveling to Thomas Beckett's tomb. It was written in the vernacular and tells us a great deal about the everyday lives of ordinary people in the Middle Ages.
Black Death
Bubonic Plague that spread across Europe, killing about 1/3 of the population. It entered Europe in the port of Messina, Sicily and was spread by fleas on infected rats.
Hundred Years War
The series of wars between England and France (1337-1453) over control of the French throne, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Henry II
King of England who created Common Law and the jury system.
Philip II
Expanded the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere
Edward I
King of England who created the Parliament in 1295
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and queen of Spain who took over Catholic Spain in the Reconquista and started the Spanish Inquisition
Domesday Book
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
exchequer
charged with the collection and management of the royal revenue (taxes) in medieval England
Common Law
a legal system created by Henry II that was based on custom and previous court rulings
Magna Carta
Document, signed by King John of England in 1215, that limited the power of the king by declaring that the king was bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protections offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights.
Parliament
the national legislature of England, created by Edward I, made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons
lay investiture
practice, or ceremony, in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
annul
declare invalid; cancel
Reconquista
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
scholasticism
a medieval system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
flying buttresses
stone support on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher walls and leave space for large stained-glass windows
vernacular
the everyday speech and language of ordinary people
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease (i.e., Bubonic Plague/Black Death)
illuminated manuscript
A manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders, and miniature illustrations.

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