69 terms

Apologia Biology Quarterly Test 1

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(1 All life contains DNA (2 All life forms have a method of extracting and converting energy (3 All life can sense and respond to their surroundings (4 All life can reproduce
What are the four criteria for life?
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
Metabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
Anabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
Catabolism
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Photosynthesis
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Consumers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Decomposers
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Autotrophs
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Heterotrophs
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent to the offspring.
Inheritance
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
Eukaryotic Cell
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
Species
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
What are the "three domains" in the Three Domain System?
Spherical, Baccilus, Spirillum
What are the three bacterial shapes?
An organism that feeds on dead matter
Saprophyte
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are being born.
Steady State
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Exponential growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
Logistic growth
conjugation, transformation, transductation
What are the three types of "genetic recombination" in bacteria?
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
Conjugation
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
Plasmid
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
Transformation
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
Transduction
Endospore
What do bacteria form when they are exposed to life-threatening situations?
spherical
If a bacterial colony name ends in -coccus, what is the shape of the bacterium?
rod-shaped
If a bacterial colony name ends in -baccilus, what is the shape of the bacterium?
Gracilicutes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Mendosicutes
What are the four phylum in Kingdom Monera?
Scotobacteria - non-photosynthetic, Anoxyphotobacteria - non-oxygen-producing photosynthetic, Oxyphotobacteria - oxygen-producing photosynthetic
What are the four classes and characteristics in Gracilicutes?
Firmibacteria - baccili or cocci, Thallobacteria - other shapes
What are the two classes and characteristics in Firmicutes?
Mollicutes
What is the one class in Tenericutes?
Archaebacteria
What is the one class in Mendosicutes?
(1 Moisture (2 Temperature (3 Nutrition (4 Darkness (5 Oxygen
What are the 5 conditions for bacterial growth?
Protozoa, Algae
What are the two Subkingdoms in Protista?
Sarcodina, Mastigophora, Sporozoa, Ciliophora
What are the four phyla in Protozoa?
Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta
What are the five phyla in Algae?
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
Pseudopod
The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells.
Ectoplasm
The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.
Endoplasm
Sarcodina
Amoeba are in which phylum?
Mastigophora
Euglena & Volvox are in which phylum?
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
Pellicle
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Symbiosis
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
Mutalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
Commensalism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Parasitism
Ciliophora
Paramecium are in which phylum?
Sporozoa
Spores are in which phylum?
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.
Zooplankton
Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
Phytoplankton
Chlorophyta
The Desmid, Chlorella, and Spirogyra are in which phylum?
Chrysophyta
Diatoms are in which phylum?
Pyrrophyta
Dinoflagellates are in which phylum?
Phaeophyta
Brown algae are in which phylum?
Rhodophyta
Red algae are in which phylum?
Specialized aerial hypha that produce spores.
Sporophore
An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.
Stolon
A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host's cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
Haustorium
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
Chitin
A thin covering of tissue.
Membrane
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
Fermentation
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
Zygospore
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
Zygote
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
Antibiotic
Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Chytridiomycota, Deuteromycota, Myxomycota
What are the six phylum in Kingdom Fungi?
Sporangiophores, Stolon, Zygospore
What are the three ways bread molds reproduce?
Lichen, Mycorrhiza
What are the two types of symbiosis in Kingdom Fungi?
Plasmodium, taxoplasm
What are two pathogens in kingdom Protista?