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Intro to Music Test #2

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where did Baroque move from
italy...france...england
origin of the word baroque
portugese for "barroco"- referring to a pearl of irregular shape
describe idea of baroque
excessive ornamentation in visual arts

rough bold sound in music; large, colorful, dramatic, lots of contrast
examples of extravagance
-St. Peter's Basilica - by Gian Lorenzo
-Palace of Versailles - by Louis XVI
-Bernini's canopy - st. florian austrian monestery
doctrine of affections
-aesthetic theory
-different musical moods could and should be used to convey emotions of the audience
2 elements remain in baroque
1) expressive melody
2) strong supporting bass
voices are no longer
equal
switch from renaissance vocal ensemble to
accompanied solo song
monody
-expressive solo singing to single (simple) accompaniment

-single singer steps forward and accompanied by a few supporting instruments
-where vocal virtuosity came from
-aria
_________ carries melody, __________ provides strong harmonic support
soprano, bass
in the beginning, the texture of baroque music was
homophonic
basso continuo
bass-driven chordal support - played by 1+ instruments
theorbo
instrument that has more low strings than the lute
-played the basso continuo
________ played the top line
harpsichord
figured bass
numerical shorthand placed below shorthand
-how the harpsichordist knew what chords to play
3 sections of baroque
1) early baroque (1600-1660)
2) middle baroque (1660-1710)
3) late baroque (1710-1750)
2 diff melodic lines
1) dramatic, virtuosic style
2) mechanical style with repetitions, instrumental music
vocal melody in baroque
quick shifts from long notes to very short notes
-long phrases, excited sound, single syllable in long melisma
harmony
-based on basso continuo
-chord progressions came around
-shortest and most frequent: V-I (dominant-tonic) candence
-major and minor scales "modes"
rhythm
-uniformity (not flexibility)
-strong recurring beat
texture of baroque music in later times
polyphony
dynamics
-began to dictate dynamics by writing in "piano"(soft) and "forte"(loud)
-preferred dramatic contrast in dynamics rather than gradual crescendo/decrescendo
terraced dynamics
shifting the volume of sound suddenly from one to another
opera
Italian word for "work" : includes music, drama, scenery, costumes, dance
libretto
"little book" - text of an opera
-poet worked with the composer
3 laws of opera house
1) all parts of the drama are sung
2) major roles go to best singers
3) star singers demand and receive huge appearance fees => the cost of opera is enormous
origins of opera
-late 16th century Italy (Florence, Mantua, Italy)
-for progressive musicians and intellectuals
-shows the power of ancient Greek music
-Vincenzo Galilei and Galileo Galilei
Claudio Monteverdi
-musical genious
-good at madrigal, mass, motet, opera
where was Monteverdi born
Cremona
where did Monteverdi move
Mantua
why did he move there
to serve the Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga as a singer and performer on string instruments...appointed director of music
wrote 2 operas for the court
1) Orfeo
2) Arianna
the duke didnt pay what he promised so...
Monteverdi left and took a job (maestro dicappella) at St. Mark's in Venice
also wrote
The Return of Ulysses, The Coronation of Poppea
where did he die
Venice
first important opera in the history of western music
orfeo
go over story of orfeo
do it!!!!
theme of orfeo
the divine power of music
the drama is advanced through
monody
simplest type of monody
recitative
recitative comes from italian word
"recitativo" - something recited
describe recitative
-musically heightened speech that communicates the plot to the audience
-attempts to mirror the natural rhythms of everyday speech - often made of rapidly repeating notes followed by one or two longs notes at the end of phrases
performed with or without meter or beat
without
is recitative accompanied by anything
only basso continuo
simple recitative
sparsely accompanied recitative
what kind of music did monteverdi write besides opera
aria
aria is italian for
"song" or "ayre"
describe aria
-more passionate, more expansive, more tuneful than a recitative
-conveys what the character feels about the events happening
-brings the action to a halt to focus a spotlight on the emotional state of a singer
-works through text at a leisurely pace
-words repeated to heighten their dramatic effect
-important vowels extended by melismas
-short rhyming poem of one or more stanzas
does aria have meter and regular rhythms
yes
describe orfeo's aria: "possente spirto"
3 three line stanzas, each with rhyme scheme ABA

music for each stanza begins and ends in the same key (G minor)
are operatic arias accompanied by anything
the basso continuo and all or part of the top of the orchestra
2 main stlyes of singing in baroque opera
recitative and aria
other style
arioso
describe arioso
-halfway between aria and recitative
-more declamatory than opera (speech-like)
-less rapid-fire delivery than recitative
instrumental works that serve as a curtain raiser
overtures, preludes, sinfonias
toccata
-one movement composition
-free in form
-originally for solo keyboard but later for instrumental ensemble as well
-instrumental showpiece
-sounded 3 times
-calls the audience to attention, to signal that the action is about to begin
how long is orfeo
-5 acts
-90 mins total
where was orfeo originally performed
mantua - without intermission
with the ending of orfeo, monteverdi established
happy ending
venice was like what city
las vegas - gambling, prostitution
monteverdi moved to
venice
why
to be director of music at Saint Mark's basilica
what did monteverdi create here
chamber cantata
chamber music was for who
soloists performed in the home or small auditorium
what was the main vocal genre of the music
cantata
what does cantata mean
"something sung"
chamber cantata description
accompanied solo singing
subject matter of chamber cantata
unrequited love; heroes/heroines of ancient history and mythology
how long does chamber cantata last
8-15 mins
how is it divided up
into contrasting sections that alternate between recitative and aria
lacks
costumes and scenery
chamber cantata in terms of opera
"mini opera"but for a single soloist
most important composer of chamber cantatas
barbara strozzi
how born and father
-born out of wedlock
-father: Giulio Strozzi- wrote librettos for monteverdi
-Venetian
-encouraged her to pursue music: got her composition lessons and organized gatherings at their house for her music to be heard
her teacher
Francesco Cavalli - student of Monteverdi
what she wrote
L'amante segreto (the secret lover) - about unrequited love
-she is too timid to reveal her passion to a guy and wants to die
when her dad died
she was poor with 4 kids and unmarried
what she published
6 collections of cantatas -each dedicate to a member of high nobility - paid her
Adriana Basile
-associate of Moteverdi at Mantua
-very successful virtuoso soprano
-first "diva"
Elena Piscopia
first woman tor eceive a university degree - Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Padua, Italy
Artemisia Gentileschi
-Florentine painter
-1st woman to be accepted to the Academy of Design
-became a court painter for king charles I of england
ostinato
melody, harmony, rhythm that repeats continually
basso ostinato
continual repetition in the bass
singing laments accompanied by
basso continuo descended in stepwise motion- symbolizes grief/lamentation
england had what kind of relationship with opera
love/hate
dido and aeneas
-1st important opera written in english
who wrote it
henry purcell
henry purcell
-"greatest of all english composers"
organist for
westminster abbey, king's chapel royal
what was dido and aeneas created for
-private girls boarding suburb in chelsea
-they had one major stage production annually
-included dance numbers
all 9 solo parts except for role of aeneas were written for ______ parts
female
story comes from
virgil's aeneid
-they studied this poem in latin class
chromaticism
vocal line descends a full octave - a device used by composers to signal pain and relief
ground bass
what english composers call "basso continuo" b/c repeating bass provided a solid foundation
ground bass purcell composed fir didos lament has 2 sections
1) chromatic stepwise descent over the interval of a 4th
2) 2 measure cadence returning to the tonic
form of didos lament
brief one stanza poem with an ABA rhyme scheme
each line of text and many indidvidual words are
repeated
17th century (late baroque): ______ music came to rival ________ music
instrumental vocal
growing popularity with which instrument
violin
idiomatic writing
"well suited" - exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments
what applied to instruments too
doctrine of affections
origins of baroque orchestra
17th century Italy and France
meaning of orchestra
used to mean the area for musicians but later came to mean the musicians themselves
the insturments used
-variety of instruments but only 1 or 2 of each
-violin family emerged - dominated the orchestra
-violin, viola, cello, double bass
added what instrument family
woodwinds - used in pairs
-flute, oboe, bassoon
sometimes added in
trumpets, timpani and french horn
_________ was always there
basso continuo - either with harpsichord or 2 low string instruments
orchestra definition
ensemble of musicians, organized around a core of strings, with added woodwinds and brasses, playing under a leader
size of orchestra
small, no more than 20 performers, only 1 person assigned to a single written line
size of french king louis xiv's orchestra
much bigger - around 80
what did he call himself
"sun king", after apollo, the god of the sun and music
palace at versailles
largest court complex ever constructed
his quote about himself
"i am the state"
who controlled his court orchestra
jean baptiste lully
composition of the orchestra
24 string players
added flutes, oboes, bassoons
1st composer to require what
that strings and woodwinds always play together in an orchestra
how did he discipline
by force
how did he die
stabbed himself in the foot with stick - gangrene
responsible for french
overture
overture
instrumental piece that opens for a larger composition
french overture has 2 sections
1) slow duple meter; with stately dotted rhythms-royal procession
2)fast triple meter; imitation
where did french overture spread
england and germany
why is johann pahcelbel famous
"pachelbel's canon in D major"
describe pachelbel's canon in D major
-the 1st movement of a 2 movement instrumental suite
-the 2nd movement is a lively contrapuntal dance - a gigue
-the different voices are hard to distinguish
-what we hear is the bass line (fourths alternate with steps-intervallic pattern)
-gravitates strongly around subdominant, dominant and tonic chords
the allure of it
used by a lot of composers and modern day people
where did pachelbel work
germany
who did he teach
bach
used what specific technique
counterpoint
pachelbels canon is carried by what insturment
3 violins
sonata
type of instrumental chamber music (music played in the home with just one player per part)

"something sounded"

collection of movements, each with its own mood and tempo, all in same key

the movements: allemande, sarabande, gavotte, gigue (all dances)
who spread the sonata
arcangelo corelli
chamber sonata
baroque sonata with dance movements - 4 movements with alternating tempos: slow fast slow fast
2 types of sonatas
solo sonata

trio sonata
solo sonata
either for a solo keyboard instrument (ex. harpsichord) or for solo melody instrument (ex. violin)
trio sonata
3 musical lines (2 melody instruments and bass)

when harp joins bass to form basso continuo - actually 4 players
where was corelli born
near bologna, italy -important place for violin instruction and performance
moved where
to rome - to be a teacher, composer, performer of the violin
what is so significant about him
only musician buried in Rome's Pantheon - "hall of the gods"
how much did he write
only 5 sets of sonatas and once set of concertos
what was most important aspect of his music
harmony
most important link in the chain of chord progression
V-I (dominant tonic cadence)
wrote:
trio sonata in c major, opus 4, no. 1

1st piece in 4th published collection
describe it
chamber sonata written for 2 violins and basso continuo
opus:
"work" - used to enumerate and identify compositions
how many movements
4
the 2nd and 4th movements are
dance movements in binary (AB) form
AB
most comon form for baroque dances -no actual dancing, just captured the spirit of it
walking bass
bass that moves at a moderate, steady pace, mostly in equal not values, stepwise up or down the scale
2nd movement's form
corrente - fast, in triple meter
what was the showpiece of orchestral music
concerto
concerto:
from latin "concertare"- "to strive together"

a musical composition with friendly competition between a soloist and an orchestra
solo concerto
when only one soloist confronts the orchestra
concerto grosso
when a small group of soloists work together, performing as a unit against the full orchestra
concertino
"little concert" the 1-4 soloists that are part of the concerto grosso
tutti
"all" "everybody" - the full orchestra
solo concerto and concerto grosso
-written by vivaldi and bach
-3 movements (fast slow fast)
-serious 1st movement- ritornello form
-lyrical and tender 2nd movement
-3rd movement- uses ritornello form, but lighter, more dancelike, rustic
-originated from italy at end of 17th century
when did concerto grosso end
bach's death
solo concerto lasted through
classical and romantic periods
who was most influential for baroque concerto
antonio vivaldi
where was vivaldi from
venice
dad
a barber and parttime musician at St. marks basilica
involvement with clergy
enterered Holy Orders - ordained as a priest
opera writing
wrote about 50 operas - made him rich
why did roman catholic church forbid him from practicing his music
because of his worldly pursuits - lived with an italian opera star for 15 years
what was his nickname
"il prete rosso" red haired priest
how did he die
poor and obscure in Vienna
where did he work
in venice at the ospedale della pieta (hospital of mercy) as a violinist and music teacher and then as a musical director
describe the "hospital"
orphanage to care for and educate young women that were abandoned and illegitimate
how often did they have a performance
every sunday - for the fancy people of venice and tourists
violin concerto in E major, opus 8, no.1, the "spring"
the first of 4 solo concertos "the seasons"

showed that voice and instruments can convey emotion

in ritornello- vivaldi popularized this
created instrumental program music
plays out a story or a series of events
ritornello form
"return" "refrain" - returns again and again by the tutti (full orchestra)
melodic sequence
repetition of a musical motive at successively higher and lower degrees of the scale

propels music forward and creates energy

usually only 3 times
father of the concerto
vivaldi

composed over 450 concertos
describe late baroque music
large scale works full of dramatic power, broad gestures and complex counterpoint
not a period of musical innovation but of
refinement
late baroque- melody
-progressive development: theme is set and expanded
-long and asymmetrical
-notes propelled by melodic sequence
late baroque- rhthym
-progressive development
late baroque- beat and meter
easily recognized
late baroque- texture
-denser
-return to polyphonic (counterpoint) to add richness to middle
who had a whole line of family musisicans in small towns in thuringia- province in germany
bach
how was bach taught
a little bit by his brother but mostly self taught - studied, copied and arranged the compositions of corelli, vivaldi, pachelbel and palestrina
1st big position
organist in weimar, germany to the court
who was most renowned organ virtuoso in germany
bach
what is best instrument for polyphonic counterpoint
organ - b/c have 2 keyboards, diff ranges of pipes add color
master of counterpoint
bach
fugue
composition of 2-5 parts played or sung by voices or instruments which begins with the presentation of a subject in imitation in each part (exposition), continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint (episodes) and further appearances of the subject
subject
the theme
exposition
successive presentation of the subject
episodes
freer sections - voices go their own way
fugue was written for how many voices
2-3 norm is 2-5
fugue can be instruments or voices T or F
T
________ was bach's favorite instrument
organ
organ fugue in G major
-written early in bach's career
-written for 4 voices (SATB)
-subject first appears in soprano
-voices enter in succession
-uses pedal point
-puts the last chord in major (popular in baroque-brigher/more optimistic)
pedal point
a note, usually in the bass, sustained or repeated for a time while harmonies change around it
why did bach want a new position
had a wife and 4 kids- needed to support them
his new position
music director at the court of Cothen, Germany
when bach came back to get his family
the duke of weimar threw him in jail because he just left without permission
when he finally got to cot hen, he shifted his focus from organ music of the church to
instrumental music of the court
prince of cothen organized the _________ orchestra
all star
bach wrote what major concertos
brandenburg concertos - 6 concertos of the concerto grosso type
how the brandenburg concertos came to be
while bach was still in cothen, looking for an even better job in berlin and submit 6 concertos to the court of margrave christian ludwig of brandenburg
each of the concertos calls for a diff group of
soloists
bach's aim
to show his ability to write challenging music for any and all instruments
first ________ concerto
keyboard
_________ had a solo
harpsichord
cadenza
showy passage for soloist alone toward the end of a movement in a concerto
how many times longer than movement by vivaldi
3
bach's next employment
saint thomas's church and choirs school in leipzig, germany to be the cantor -worked here until death
main attraction to this place
his sons could go to school here for free
tasks while there
-superintending all liturgical music of the 4 principle churches of that city
-played organ for all funerals
-composed any music needed for university ceremonies
-taught latin grammar to the boys at the choir school
most demanding part of the job
providing new music for the church each sunday and religious holiday (about 60 days)
bach developed new genre
church cantata
church cantata:
multimovement sacred work including arias, ariosos, recitatives; performed by vocal soloists, a chorus and a small accompanying orchestra

became musical core of sunday service in lutheran and protestant church
sunday mass
-at saint thomas's church in leipzig
-prescribed by martin luther
-began at 7 am, lasted 4 hours
-began with reading of the gospel, commentary of the text, cantata (high point), sermon (1 hr long)
bach wrote how many cantatas for the leipzig people
300
bach's family life
-he was a family man
-20 kids total
wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme (awake, a voice is calling) reveals
his abiding faith in the religious traditions of his german lutheran community
he wrote this for what time of the year
beginning of advent (4 sundays before christmas)
content of this advent stuff
-text announces coming of bride groom (christ is groom)
-10 virgins (bride)
-gospel of matthew
-message: get your spiritual house in order to receive the coming of christ
how many movements in this
7

chorus, recitative, aria, chorus, recitative, aria, chorus
chorale
spiritual melody or religious folk song of the lutheran church
-clear cut phrases and steady beat with one syllable of text per note

-wachet auf
chorale =
hymn
form of wachet auf
AAB
movement 1
-most remarkable
-polyphonic
-multidimensional spectacle surrounding coming of christ
-3 part ritornello
1) dotted rhythm- steady march
2) strong downbeat, syncopations- tugging urgency
3) rapid sixteenth notes- unrestrained race towards desired object (christ)
-rapid counterpoint
-basso continuo
movement 2
-recitative
-narrator invites daughters of zion to wedding feast
-sung by a tenor
-no chorale tune
movement 3
-aria (duet) between the soul (soprano) and jesus (bass)
-no chorale tune
movement 4
-meeting of christ and daughters of zion
-beautiful like the first movement but not as movement
-2 central motives
1) chorale melody sung by tenors
2) melody by violins and violas in unison
-walking bass
-the only cantata movement published
movement 5
-recitative for christ (bass)
-no chorale tune
-christ invites anguished should to find comfort in him
da capo form
ternary form (ABA)
movement 6
-aria (duet) for bass and soprano
-no chorale tune
-form: ternary (ABA) called da capo form
movement 7
-simple 4 voice homophonic setting of last stanza of the choral tune
-choral melody with sopranos and harmonizing with 3 other parts
-members join in
-christ reveals a vision of life in celestial kingdom
bachs first wife
maria barbara - died

left bach with 4 kids, 3 other ones had died in infancy
2nd wife
anna magdalena - professional singer

gave up her job b/c women weren't allowed to sing publicly

became bachs manager
had how many kids with her
13
when bach died, he left
his musical scores to his oldest sons and left his wife his cantatas but they weren't valuable
how was he in the last decade of his life
withdrew to his mind
work: well tempered clavier
WTC
clavier
keyboard instruments
has 2 sets of 24
preludes and fugues
prelude
short preparatory piece that sets a mood and is a technical warmup for a player before the fugue
bachs last project
the art of fugue
the art of fugue
encyclopedic treatment of all known contrapuntal procedures set forth in 19 canons and fugues
where did handel go
all over the place
most famous composer in all europe
handel
where was he born
halle germany
where did he die
london
what did his dad want him to
be a lawyer
he moved to
hamburg -became second violinist in public opera
moved to
italy - wrote operas, chamber cantatas
went back to
germany
to
be chapel master to the elector of hanover
but needed
an immediate leave of absense to go to london - never came back
where did he make his fame and fortune
london - he worked for aristocracy, musical tutor for english royal family
he previous employer elector of hanover became
king george 1 of england - birthday party on the thames- water music
wrote:
water music, music for royal fireworks, coronation service
english royal had problem with
their image
did what to help their image
gave concerts
dance suite:
collection of dances, usually 2-7 in number, all in one key and for one group of instruments
allemande
german dance - brisk dance in duple meter
saraband
slow, sensual dance of spanish origin in triple meter
minuet
moderate, elegant dance in triple meter
baroque form
binary (AB)
minuet trio minuet
AB CD AB
formed the opera company
the royal academy of music -eventually went bankrupt
first opera
rinaldo - first performed at the queens theater
opera seria:
"serious" as opposed to "comic" opera

-glorified the nobility
-chronicles the triumphs and tragedies of kings and queens, gods and goddesses
-action happens offstage- reported in recitatives
-principal characters reacts to unseen events with arias that express strong emotion
-leading male roles sung by castrati
wrote
giulio
oratorio
'something sung in an oratory'

-begins with overture-like opera
-divided into acts (with recitatives and arias)- like opera
-long (last 2-3 hours) -like opera
-diff from opera because performed in a church- no costumes, acting, staging
oratory
chapel used for prayer ir music prayer (gospel music)
subject matter
sacred
oratorio was preferred to opera b.c
opera cost so much
most famous of handels work
messiah -tells story of life of christ
wrote _____ oratorios
20
composed in how many weeks
3 1/2
messiah was first performed where
dublin, ireland as part of a charity event
3 parts of messiah
1) prophecy of his coming and his incarnation
2) his passion and resurrection, triumph of the gospel
3) reflections on the christian victory over death
patoral aria
has several distinctive musical characteristics which suggest pat oral scenes and the movement of simple shepherds attending the christ child
most important part
choruses
how big has it grown
chorus of 4000 and orchestra of 500 in "festivals of the people" in honor of handle