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61 terms

Chapter 8 biology

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Autotrophs use light enegery from the sun to produce their own food
what are autotrophs?
Heterotrophs eat other living things to gain energy (humans)
What are heterotrophs?
ATP is an energy source for all cells
What is ATP?
ATP is made in the mitochondria
Where is ATP made?
Metabolism is a chemical reaction in cells
What is metabolism?
Light energy by the sun converted into chemical engery by the cell
What is photosynthesis?
Organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
What is cellular respiration?
the abilitly to do work
What is energy?
The study of the flow and transformation in the universe
What is thermodynamics?
releases energy when the bond between the second an dthird phosphate groups is broken forming a molecule call adenosine diphosphate and a free phosphate group
What does ATP do?
energy can be coverted from one form to another but can not be created nor destroyed
What is the first law of thermodynamics
energy can not be created without the loss of usable energy
What is the second law of thermodynamics
sunlight
What does photosynthesis require?
Convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose
Phototsynthesis uses energy and sunlight to do what?
H2(little 2)O and CO2 (little 2)
Reactants of photosynthesis
glucose C6H12O6 and O2 oxygen
products of photosynthesis
6CO2(little2)+6H2(little 2)O==>C6(little6)H12(little12)C6(little 6)+6O2 (little2)
Formula for photosynthesis
two
How many phases does photosynthesis occur in?
Photosynthesis
What also requires light and chlorophyll pigments?
Light dependent reactions and Light independent reactions
What are the names of the two stages that photosynthesis occurs in?
In the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast
Where does light dependent reactions occur?
White light
What is sunlight seen as?
plants are green because they have a Chloroplasts and Chloroplasts are green because they have chlorophyll--the pigment inside the chloroplasts.
Why do plants appear green?
Oxygen gas, ADP-->ATP, NADP+ -->NADPH(electron carrier molecule)
What does light dependent reactions produce?
Calvin cycle
What is a different term that is used for light independent reactions?
the supporting framework or matrix of a cell
What is Stroma?
The electrons gain energy
What happens when sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll?
NADP+
The electrons are carried by a certain elevtron molecule called
Hydrogen (H+)
NADP+ accepts and holds 2 excited electrons and what?
NADPH
What is NADP+ is converted into what?
Oxidized form
NADP+= what?
Reduced form
NADPH= what?
to produce high energy sugars like glucose
NADPH carried excited electrons for the light-dependent reactions and uses them to do what?
slows or stops photosynthesis
What does the shortage of water do?
To far above or below the temperture rage can damage the enzymes that helps photosynthesis to function
How does the temperture affect photosynthesis?
Slows or stops photosynthesis
What happens if the temperture is very low?
Slows or stops photosynthesis
What happens in photosynthesis if the temperture is to high?
Increases photosynthesis
What happens during photosynthesis if there is an increase in light?
Decrease in photosynthesis
What happens during photosynthesis if there is a decrease in light?
in the mitochondria
where do both plant and animal cells carry out the final stage of cellular respiration?
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperture of 1gram of water 1celsius degree
What is a calorie?
3 stages, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain
How does cellular respiration take place?
In the cytoplasm
Where does Glycolyis take place?
half
Glucose is broken in?
formed
2molecules of pyruvic acid(a three carbon chain) are?
6O2(small2)+C6(small6)H12(small12)O6(small6)+ADP--->6CO2(small2)+6H2(small2)O+ATP
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
the products of the other
The reactants of one process are?
Activate the process of glycolysis
During the process of glycolysis 2ATP are used to do what?
made
4ATP molecules are?
Produced (-2+4)=2
A net gain of 2ATP are?
2NADH molecules
2NAD+ molecules gain an electron in the form of hydrogen to produce what?
Glucose+2NAD+ +2ADP-->pyruvic acid+2NADH+2ATP
what is the chemical equation for glycolysis?
releases energy in food molecules in the absence of oxygen
What does fermentation do?
does not require oxygen
What does Anaerobic mean?
ATP
Fermentation regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue to produce what?
Alcohol and lactic acid
What are two types of fermentation?
Yeast and a few other microorganism use this type. Important part of bread baking.
What is Alcohol fermentation?
Occurs in many cells including humans. Lactic acid builds up in your muscle cells during exercise causes sore.
What is lactic acid fermentation?
Without NAD+ the cell cannot keep glycolysis going and ATP production would stop. Therefore NAD+ needs to be replenished. Lactic acid fermentation takes place to replenish NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue.
What keeps Glycolysis going?
Mitochondrial matrix
Where does the Kerb cycle take place?
Glycolysis, kerbs cycle, Electron transport chain
What are the three stages of cellular repiration?