NASM Ch. 3- Disciplines of Functional Biomechanics
Terms in this set (91)
Body position where one is lying with the face downward.
Applying principles of proper technique and combining them with observations in order to make an educated evaluation.
Taking physical measurements and making mathematical computations to reach a conclusion.
Range of Motion
The amount of movement produced by one or multiple joints.
The speed at which each repetition is performed.
Adduction of the shoulder blades where the shoulder blades move toward the spine.
An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a left half and a right half.
When the space between the bone on top of the shoulder (acromion) and the tendons of the rotator cuff rub against each other during arm elevation.
The starting point from which an individual moves.
Supination at the foot
A combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction
A muscle that produces pronation of a limb or body segment
A triplanar movement that is associated with force reduction.
Pronation of the foot
A combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction.
Muscle with fibers that are oriented at an angle to the muscle's longitudinal axis.
Muscle with fibers that are oriented parallel to that muscle's longitudinal axis.
Referring to a state of having disrupted neuromuscular recruitment patterns that
lead a muscle to be more active during a joint action.
The relatively stationary attachment site where skeletal muscle attaches begins.
When the neuromuscular system allows agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to synergistically produce muscle actions in all three planes of motion.
The mid-region in between the origin and insertion.
Occurring in more than one plane of motion.
That which is contained within an imaginary line that splits the body into equal halves.
A substance that has mass and takes up space
The amount of matter in an object or physical body
The incorrect or improper alignment of the joints in a body without movements.
An imaginary long, straight line that cuts through the body from top to bottom.
Line of Pull
The direction in which a muscle is pulled.
A relatively rigid rod or bar that rotates around a fulcrum.
Biomechanics term that involves the study of forces.
The study of human movement.
The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while maintaining a constant length.
(1) A muscle's primary function. (2) A muscle action produced at a joint when a muscle is being concentrically activated to produce acceleration of a body segment.
Located from within and acting directly on a structure being considered.
Intrinsic Core Stabilizers
Deep inner muscles behind the superficial abdominals that have a
direct effect on stabilizing the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.
Rotation of a limb or body segment toward the midline of the body.
The coordination of muscles to produce, reduce, and stabilize forces in multiple planes for efficient and safe movement.
The relatively mobile attachment site
Ground Reaction Force
An equal and opposite external force that is exerted back onto the
body by the ground.
A force that accelerates an object or mass downward toward the earth's center.
An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a front half and a back half.
A push or a pull that can create, stop, or change movement. (2) Force = Mass ×
A muscle that produces flexion of a limb or joint.
A bending at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments decreases.
The normal extensibility of soft tissue, which allows a joint to be moved through its full range of motion.
Located from outside yet act on a structure being considered.
Rotation of a limb or body segment away from the midline of the body.
A muscle that produces extension of a limb or joint.
A movement at a joint where the relative angle between two adjoining segments
Action of a muscle when it is generating an eccentric contraction.
The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
The programming process that identifies neuromuscular dysfunction, develops a plan of action, and implements a corrective strategy as a part of an exercise training program.
The production of an active force when a muscle develops tension while shortening in length.
The study of how forces affect a living body.
A white tendinous sheet that attaches muscle to bone.
A straight line that cuts through the body from front to back.
Standard posture wherein the body stands upright with the arms beside the trunk, the palms face forward, and the head faces forward.
A muscle that produces adduction of a limb or joint.
A body segment is moving toward the midline of the body.
Muscle tension that is generated by its contractile elements
The speed of an object.
A triplanar motion that is associated with force production.
A muscle that produces supination of a limb or body segment.
Body position where one is lying on the back and face is upward.
The amount of time that muscle is actively producing tension during exercise movements.
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.
The rotary or rotational effect that a force has around an axis.
An imaginary plane that bisects the body into equal halves, producing a
top half and a bottom half.
A multijoint exercise that involves extension at the hip, knee, and ankle.
A multijoint exercise that involves flexion at the hip, knee, and ankle.
Referring to the state of having disrupted neuromuscular recruitment patterns that lead a muscle to be relatively less active during a joint action.
The amount of force that gravity has on the body.
Anatomic Locations, Planes of Motion, and Joint Movements
This is the standard set of terms that refer to locations on the human body, the various planes of motion that wemove through in functional activities, and the individual types of movements that the joints ofthe body can accomplish. This common scientific language is standard throughout the health, fitness, and medical fields.
Common Gym Movements
These are the most common types of movements that the fitness professional will utilize when working in a fitness facility with clients.
Using the terminology of biomechanics, the fitness professional can effectively classify any exercise, with any equipment, into a standard naming convention. This will allow for ease of program design and the progression and regression of exercises as needed.
The Muscle Action Spectrum and Muscle Functions
Muscles work in three different ways to produce, stabilize, and reduce forces around our joints. Each muscle in the body will also perform different functions while working with other muscles, depending on the specific task that is required of it.
This is application of physics as it applies to our bodies. It involves the study of forces, torque, and levers, and how the body interacts with the outside world to push, pull, create, stop, or change movement.
This is the varying speed at which exercises are performed, and a core concept that will be highly used in program design depending on the individual needs of clients.
Location and Naming Muscles
To best understand how the body moves, the fitness professional needs a working knowledge how the muscles attach to the skeleton, and an understanding of their naming structures. Knowing the action, attachment, direction, location, structure, size, and shape of a muscle, will clarify any confusion around the Latin terminology and paint a complete picture of that muscle's function within the body.
Common Muscle Imbalances
For the most functional and efficient movement, our bodies need to be in balance; left to right, front to back, and top to bottom. Due to similar movement patterns all humans perform, there are a variety of imbalances that the fitness professional will encounter with clients. Due to many factors, muscles may become overactive or underactive, and it is essential that the fitness professional be able to identify the most common dysfunctional muscles that may lead to a client experiencing pain or injury.
Observing and Reversing Kinetic Chain Dysfunction
Muscle imbalances can affect the entire Human Movement System. It will be important for the fitness professional to know how to observe the various faulty movement patterns many clients will demonstrate, and how to use concepts of flexibility and activation to assist in correcting these movement dysfunctions.
In order for the body to work in the most efficient way, the neuromuscular system must allow all muscles surrounding a joint to produce and reduce force, and dynamically stabilize the kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
Vital Exam Highlights
The biomechanical concepts presented in this chapter are of utmost importance on the exam. Knowing the naming conventions for the anatomic locations, planes and axes of movement, and joint movements will allow for direct application of that knowledge to almost every fitness concept presented later in the program. How the muscles function within the kinetic chain is highly focused on, specifically the muscle action spectrum. Rote memorization of the entire human anatomy is not a requirement; however, a detailed knowledge of the specific muscles that are identified as commonly overactive or underactive is essential for the exam. Further, the concepts of kinetic chain disruption, and the solutions for reversing them, will be greatly integrated into the later chapters of study.
refers to a position away from the center of the body or the point of referenc
A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body is called a
rontal plane motion occurs around a(n) _____ axis.
Internal rotation refers to the rotation of a joint _____ of the body.
_____ occurs when the shoulder blades move toward the midline.
The position of the human body when it is erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward is called the _____ position.
The _____ bisects the body into right and left sides.
A position on or toward the back of the body is called _____.
A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases is called _____.
Shoulder elevation refers to the _____ motion of the scapula.