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PSY 4604 Test 1 McConnell Fall 2016 UCF
Terms in this set (208)
philosophy about reality
about the nature of the universe regardless of what science (particularly physics) tells us
Meta = beyond or after
philosophy of what exists
Problem of Universals
do universal (general, abstract) ideas such as infinity or nothingness (also think circles/shapes) exists only in our minds as ideas or are they real things that exists somewhere "out there"
universals are just ideas (exist only in name, i.e nom-)
universals are real and exist
belief that there is a division between the contents of the mind ("in here" or simply "mind") vs the contents of the physical universe ("out-there" or simply "matter")
the belief that there is only one realm (in here & out there are 1)
idealism (aka immaterialism)
in the example of mind v matter, the belief that only the mind exists
in the example of mind v matter, the belief that only matter exists
belief that the mental and physical are allowed to interact with one another (ex, eyes perceive a dog, leads to the thought of a dog, then your thought to touch the dog leads to physical action of touching dog)
the mental and physical simply exists side by side, or parallel, without actually interacting
(the 2 worlds are considered running separately but in perfect harmony)
philosophy of knowledge and where it comes from
any thought or notion that we have is traced back to an innate idea, and so all knowledge is the product of human reason coupled with innate knowledge
refers to (among other things) the uniquely human ability to use reason and logic, and to attain a higher wisdom using our rational mind
view that rejects innate knowledge and states, that any idea in the mind must have first been present in the senses
tabula rasa (blank slate)
Locke's concept that we are born like a piece of blank slate, devoid of all content, until experience fills the mind with knowledge.
knowledge and abilities that we are born with are in our nature
Explain the difference between epistemology and metaphysics.
Epistemology is the philosophy about knowledge and metaphysics is a philosophy about reality. One may say epistemology is about what is "in here", while metaphysics is about what is "out there".
Define rationalism and empiricism.
Rationalism is the epistemological view that knowledge is innate and that logic is the true path to wisdom. Empiricism is the view that we are born a blank slate and all knowledge comes from the senses.
Explain why studying the history of psychology is important.
We need to understand how philosophy of mind has shaped questions we ask in psychology, and what kinds of philosophies have been shown to be problematic. We also want to understand the broader connections between all of the sub-fields of psychology.
Explain the mind/body problem and describe examples of different perspectives on it.
The mind/body problem is the philosophy of understanding the nature of mind and reality. What is mind? Is it mental or is it physical? Perspectives include dualism (mind and body are separate) and monism (mind and body are the same). Within monism, there are different views including materialism, and idealism.
Define realism and nominalism
Realism is the idea that the universals (i.e. concepts, categories) are real and exist outside of the mind, and nominalism is the view that universals are only mental concepts, are not real and do not exist outside the mind.
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Cult of Orpheus
the poor man's alternative religion in ancient greece
viewed humans as having a divine soul that originally lived in a perfect, divine realm of peace, i.e where suffering doesnt exist. Soul was cast into the physical form as retribution for some sin and remains there until it is redeemed by good deeds. (supported reincarnation and a karmic effect in it, ex: bad people = bug next time around)
(born ca 580 BC)
believed numbers ruled the universe and the order of the universe was defined by laws of geometry
rationalist (believed knowledge came from within and from using logic)
T/F Pythagoras believed the universe was ruled by numbers and laws of geometry.
(born ca 515 BC)
"being is eternal" (if something is, it always was, nothing can just pop up)
T/F: Parmenides believed that the universe was constantly changing?
False, he believed the universe is unchanging and eternal.
T/F Parmenides believed something can come from nothing.
False, he believed only nothing comes from nothing. If something is, it always was.
According to Parmenides, the universe is:
The One, or not divisible. Basically everything there is, is one giant thing.
T/F Parmenides believed the universe could move
False, as it is One giant thing, you cannot go from one point to another(no concept of space), therefore no movement.
Pictured the universe as one single, perfect sphere.
T/F Parmenides (and many of his time) believed that mystical revelations and logical arguments were considered more valid than other forms of knowing. (preferred innate knowledge to perceived knowledge)
Zeno of Elea
born ca 490 BC
student of Parmenides
proposed many paradoxes highlighting opposition between senses and reason
think achilles and tortoise/ dichotomy paradox
a runner wants to run 100m, by doing so he has to run half (50m), and half that (25m), and half that and so on and so forth.
This creates and infinite number of points he must pass to get to 100m inside a finite distance of 100m
(proves distance as illogical through math)
T/F Parmenides' theory of the universe as The One is a metaphysical theory.
T/F Parmenides' belief that what we see is not what actually is makes him a mind-body dualist.
Parmenides was a ________ because he believed true wisdom cant be obtained from the sense, but through inner reasoning and innate knowledge
born ca 540 BC
universe is defined by constant change
"you can never step into the same river twice"
the essential nature of something
T/F Heraclitus believed the physis of the universe to be water.
False, he believed it was fire (as a metaphor, for fire is an example of a very vigorous transformation)
T/F Heraclitus believed that we cannot trust our senses at all.
False, he believed we can to some degree. But we must combine perception with reason, Logos, and wisdom
Heraclitus was an _______, because he believed that knowledge, while moderated by reason, is generated through the senses.
born ca 460 BC
proposed the atom (as the basic element of the universe)
Democritus' atom theory
everything is made of atoms
different kinds of atoms (such as earth, water, fire; not like iron vs oxygen vs neon etc)
connected together in different arrangements and numbers to make different things (not unlike modern atoms)
T/F According to Democritus the movement and behavior of everything in the world can be explained in term of motions of atoms.
events at the largers scales of measurement can be understood by reducing them down to the smallest possible scale
everything is caused (and can be determined) by preceding events or natural laws
Democritus' theory of atom is _______ & ______
reductionist & deterministic
T/F Democritus believed the mind is also made of atoms, and therefore follows the laws of atoms.
Under Democritus' theory, concepts such as thought conciousness, emotion, feeling, (etc mental processes) are due to the atoms of the brain interacting with the atoms of the world. Therefore all knowledge originates outside the mind, and is made of solid matter. Making Democritus a _______ & _______.
monist & materialist
the "image" all objects emanate of themselves
Democritus' emanation theory
the eidola are registered by the body, and at this point trigger the motion of mind atoms. This motion then corresponds to perception. Therefore, the conscious mind would not exist if not for the external stimulation from the eidola.
(this is the first psychological theory, perceptual)
Democritus' belief that the eidola of objects causing movement of our mind atoms infers that the conscious mind is created by the external world. Making him an ________.
reasoning from the general to the particular
The following is an example of _______ _______.
Socrates is man;
All men are mortal;
Therfore, Socrates is mortal.
_______ logic is the form of logic preferred by the early rationalists.
failure to follow the rules of deduction
The following is an example of a _______
Socrates is a man;
Some men are criminals;
Therefore, Socrates is a criminal.
group of philosophers that focuses on poking holes in the ideas of being certain about anything.
born ca 490 BC
center figure of the Sophists
believed how we perceive things is subjective
_________ argued that while you may arrive at a true conclusion using deductive logic, there is no way to prove that the premises were true to begin with.
T/F Protagoras believed that what we perceive is universal.
False, he believed it is subjective
"man is the measure of all things"
born ca 470 BC
raised distinction between deductive and inductive logic
reasoning from the particular to the general
T/F Socrates believed that concepts such as beauty (i.e. universals) must share a common essence of the universal so the universals can be applied to different things. (i.e. how a flower and a painting can both be beautiful, but completely different.)
T/F Socrates believed that universals can be arrived at through experiencing the essence of them through individual events. (small to large)
True, think inductive logic
born ca 427 BC
considered most significant of all Greek philosophers
Allegory of the Cave
Allegory of the Cave
3 men imprisoned in a cave their whole lives, with their faces to a wall. All they can see is the all, and what may be reflected through shadows onto it. They will construct their own worlds based off of what they have seen on the wall, giving names and stories to certain things that come up often enough. This is THEIR REALITY, but it is clearly NOT a representation of what is ACTUALLY happening.
T/F The cave in Plato's Allegory of the Cave represent the physical body, and the prisoners are the mind/soul trapped within. The shadows are the distorted perceptions of the prisoners due to being trapped in the cave.
Plato believed that one must escape their body (cave) through _______, ________, and ________.
meditation, introspection, and reflection
T/F Plato believed that the only way we could possess such knowledge is if it was innate, and he developed 2 theories to explain this.
Theory of Forms
Plato; gives a metaphysical description of reality
beyond the imperfect physical world there exists a perfect spiritual, ethereal realm, and residing in this ethereal realm are the perfect essences. (the perfect form of a circle, or beauty would reside here)
adopted by Plato to address the problems of universals
the universals are real, and exist as entities unto themselves. Any of these forms can manifest in physical realm, but are inherently imperfect in the physical realm.
______ _______ explains that all beautiful (or any other universal) things are just different physical manifestations of the ethereal form of that univeral.
explain how we can come to know ethereal forms.
Prior to birth, the soul resides in the ethereal realm, and comes into contact with the forms, thus coming to know them in their essence. During transmigration into the physical body, the soul forgets this knowledge. Not erased, just temporarily forgotten.
the reminiscence of the innate knowledge of the ethereal realm according to Plato
Plato is a(n) ___________
born ca 384 BC
created the scientific method
regards the simple association or co-occurrences of ideas or sensations as the primary basis of meaning, thought, or learning.
Aristotles's memory theory
memories are connected, or associated with each other, on the basis of 4 principles, or laws, of association
4 laws of association
1) law of contiguity
2) law of similarity
3) law of contrast
4) law of frequency
law of contiguity
when we think of certain events, we are also reminded of events that occurred at the same time
law of similarity
memories are also connected on the basis of similarity (ex thinking of grapes leads to thinking of wine)
law of contrast
we also will think of opposites of what we initially thought of (thinking about evil, you also think of good)
law of frequency
associations between memories can increase in their strength the more often the two memories are paired together
Aristotle was a _______ __________.
Essences exist within the particular things themselves. These particulars owe their identity to possessing such essences, and the essences do not exist except within particulars.
What was the role of reason in Heraclitus' theory of knowledge?
Reason was needed to interpret the senses, and to understand better the world around us via the senses.
Explain Zeno's dichotomy paradox and how it was used to justify rationalism
The dichotomy paradox demonstrates the paradoxical nature of space and distance by showing how an infinite number of points can be placed inside a finite area. In the example, a runner who runs 100m can never leave the star line (or get to the finish) because the distance traveled can always be divided out again and again. It is used to justify rationalism because it shows that because concepts such as distance and motion are illogical, that our senses must also be illogical (becasue we obtain concepts such as distance and motion from the senses). Thus the senses cannot be trusted and we must use innate reason to determine truth.
Outline all the steps to knowledge in Plato's Reminiscence theory.
First, the soul inhabits the ethereal realm of forms where it comes into direct contact with the pure forms, the true essences of reality. After gaining knowledge of these forms or essences, the soul is born into the human body (transmigration), upon which it forgets the knowledge from the ethereal realm. When the body comes into contact with imperfect manifestations of the pure forms/essences, the soul is gradually reminded of the innate knowledge.
Explain Democritus' perceptual theory
First, all objects, including the mind are made of atoms. The atoms that make up objects emit tiny copies of themselves called eidola. Thus, a group of eidola from the atoms of an object represent a tiny copy of that object. This copy flies invisibly through the air, until it contacts the sensory apparatus of a human or animal, which then triggers motions of the mind-atoms that it comes into contact with. The motions of these mind atoms cause the person to perceive the object, and also to have an awareness of the object.
Explain how the scientific method is an example of induction
Induction is reasoning from the particular to the general. In science, theories are general statments designed to encompass particular observations. Theories are created inductively after scientists make careful observations.
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metaphysical view of reality based on hierarchy
The One is at the top, and = a divine mind/ knowledge (comparable to realm of forms or Christian God)
nearest emanation to The One is nous (= logical and divine human mind)
next is the physical universe
the nearest form of reality to The One in neoplatonism
equated to the human mind
T/F In Neoplutonism, the mind can reconnect with The One via the spirit.
Due to influence of neoplatonists like St. Paul and Plotinus, much of Western European philosophy is ________.
the movement from platonic thought to focus on the work of Aristotle around the 13th century
born ca AD 980
Islamic philosopher heavily influenced by Aristotle
develop empiricist philosophy arguing that we are born a blank slate (tabula rasa) w/ no innate knowledge
T/F Avicenna developed a psychological theory regarding operation of the mind, accounting for perception, attention, organization of knowledge, and memory systems like short and long term memories.
William of Ockham
born ca 1288
argued we cannot doubt that the ideas themselves exists, for if they did not we could not think of them.
"entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity" - William of Ockham
Aka, it is not necessary to have 2 entities (ie form and idea) when one is sufficient.
The idea is real and connot be doubted or eliminated- so it is the form that is deleted or shaved away from theory.
shaving off excess assumptions and entities from a theory
the simplest argument, with the fewest assumptions, is a better argument
T/F Ockham's Razor is used as a method to support nominalism (the universals exists as ideas in name only)
True. If something exists only in name and theory, it is as simple as it can be and doesn't need to be simplified further.
St. Thomas Aquinas
born ca 1225
provided one of the more compelling arguments for moderate realism
coined the terms essential and particular qualities
Aquinas designated 2 kinds of properties of things: ________ __________ and ________ _________
essential qualities and particular qualities
those which define the essence or category membership of things
those which make each thing unique and different from others
Thomastic moderate realism
The essence does not exist independently in some other realm, but within the particular thing itself.
The ESSENTIAL and PARTICULAR qualities are interdependent. You cannot have one without the other
ex: a great dane has the essential quality of dogness, but the particular quality of a great dane
believed the true nature of the universe could be described by a ordered mathematical and geometric description.
To Galileo, the true nature of everything is defined by its _________ ______.
primary qualities (galileo)
define the true nature of the universe (physical)
secondary qualities (galileo)
correspond to our impressions of things (psychological)
T/F To Galileo, science is about recording and measuring our experiences of secondary qualities to discover a physical law. But, they only hint at the law, we must use our rationalist tools like logic and math to elaborate the theory.
felt the universe followed a set of mathematical rules
following controlled observations, developed theories about physical reality centered on his 3 famous laws of motion
an inviolable law that specifies the relation between primary and secondary qualities
When rearranging Newton's equation for force (F= ma) to calculate acceleration (a = F/m), the left side corresponds to the visible properties, or ________ _______, while the right corresponds to the ________ ______ of the event.
T/F We can only witness secondary qualities, and the primary qualities are inferred.
one of first to propose that in science, only the data counts; theorizing about the data is not allowed.
Explain how Ockham's razor is used to justify nominalism.
Nominalism is the idea that our knowledge of universal concepts or abstract things is merely a label or name that we use to organize our sensory experience. It does not correspond to anything that is real. The concept exists only within us. Ockham's razor is a philosophical tool that states that the simplest argument, with the fewest assumptions, is a better argument. Nominalism requires the fewest assumptions because it makes no claims about an external reality that cannot be directly known.
Define primary and secondary qualities, and explain how these terms imply a mind-body dualism.
Primary qualities are the properties of objects as they exists in the universe. Secondary qualities are the properties of objects as they appear to us. Thus, primary qualities are physical and secondary are psychological. If the two kinds of qualities are not identical, then that implies that the physical and psychological worlds are seperate, distinct and different, and that is dualism.
Explain the difference between essential qualities and particular qualities.
Essential qualities define the identity of an object, while the particular qualities make it unique. Or, essential qualities are what items in the same category have in common, while particular qualities are what each item in a category has uniquely.
Explain the difference between exaggerated realism and moderate realism.
Realism is the idea that the universals are real and exists outside the mind. Exaggerated realism separate essences from particulars, while moderate realism argues for the co-mingling and inter-dependence of essences and particulars.
How did Platonic rationalism manage to become the dominant philosophy in Western Europe?
After the fall of the Roman Empire, philosophy thrived within monasteries of the early Catholic church, which spread Christianity throughout the continent. Early Christian theology was infused with Platonic thinking through the movement called Neoplatonism.
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evil demon hypothesis
Descartes evil demon hypothesis
humans are simply minds in a jar, being stimulated by an all powerful demon to simulate the physical world that we experience through our senses
was a dualist justification for doubting the senses
T/F Descartes worked to find an absolute premise to serve as the groundwork for an infallible philosophy.
T/F Descartes began searching for the absolute premise by believing.
False, he started by doubting, and asking what sort of things can be doubted.
Descartes concluded that the only thing that could not be doubted was ______________________
his own ability to doubt his very existence.
T/F Descartes believed by doubting his own existence, he confirmed his own existence.
"Cogito ergo sum" - Descartes
"I think, therefore I am."
the theory that the self is all that can be known to exist
(if i am to doubt my world [my perceptions], then all other's must be doubted as well, meaning i am alone in the universe [or according to Descartes' theory, it is just me and the demon] )
physical(material) world (descartes)
the realm of solid, physical matter.
realm of motion
spatial (objects can have coordinates, and therefore can change coordinates [move])
psychological world (descartes)
ethereal rather than solid
not spatial (cannot have coordinates and therefore cannot move)
perfect and rational
1st part of Descartes' answer of how brain and nervous system work
envisioned nerves as hollow tubes that connected to ventricles in brain.
Ventricles were full of a fluid he termed, animal spirits.
To move limbs, animal spirits flow from brain, down spine, to relevant peripheral nerve, and out to muscles inflating it, causing it to expand, thus moving the desired joints.
2nd part of Descartes' solution
human brain possessed a structure called the pineal gland, in which tiny movements of the mind triggered the flows of animal spirits in the ventricles, amplifying the tiny movements and transferring them onto the rest of the body
T/F Descartes believed the pineal gland was the seat of the soul.
T/F Descartes' belief that the mind moved which then the ventricles picked up to create movement in the body meant the mind must materialize inside the pineal gland, and therefore he has abandoned dualism for materialist monism.
True, BUT, Descartes never admitted this himself and held onto his dualist notions.
Nicolas de Malebranche
the mind-body interaction occurs because of the intervention of God.
T/F According to occasionalism, if one has an itch on their nose, God is aware of it. and moves the arm for them, The relief afforded by scratching is communicated back to the mind via God. Thus, there is no interaction between mind and body, but only an indirect God-mediated communication.
rejected 2 substance part of the mind-body theory, while preserving the distinction between mind and body. (instead of stuff of mind and stuff of body, there is just one.)
Spinoza suggested that instead of "stuff in the mind" and "stuff of the body", there is just ______, which he considered ___.
Spinoza's view of everything being one, or God, is called ________.
the mind and body are just 2 aspects of the same substance
T/F Spinoza said that free will is an illusion, and that the only reason people believe in it is because they are more aware of their own desire and feelings than they are of prior events that have caused them to experience these desires.
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
presented a single-substance view of universe
universe is made out of a substance called monads, and there is a hierarchy of monads.
Hierarchy of monads
Supreme Monad- God (omniscence)
Rational Monad- human mind (sentient, 2nd highest clarity of thought)
Sentient monads - minds of lower animals (self aware, but lack rational thought)
Simple monads - rest of material universe (rough-hewn consciousness, no self-awareness)
T/F Monads are not alive, and are solid matter.
False, they are alive and are considered more as pure energy.
T/F Monads are a life force, and have a consciousness.
Monad itch example
itch on my nose, mind is aware of the itch because it is reflected in the consciousness of the rational monad (my mind). My mind desires to scratch the itch, and the simply monad of my arm reflects this desire, and so moves to scratch the itch.
It is not that the monads of my mind and arm interacted, but simply they reflected one another.
psycho-physical parallelism (Leibniz's monad theory)
one's thoughts run parallel to the actions of the body, without actually causing the body to move.
preestablished harmony (Leibniz's monad theory)
at the beginning of the universe, god set up all monads to move according to a pre-established plan. it is through God's will that the monads move in complete harmony with each other, without influencing each other.
Explain the principle of solipsism that derives from Descartes' "brain in a vat" exercise.
Descartes argued that we cannot be sure that we are not just a brain in a vat, being tricked into believing that we occupy a body, which occupies a physical universe. He said that our sensory impressions that tell us this could be false, an illusion. If we take this idea to the extreme, then we state that the only thing we can really be sure of is our own ability to think. That means that nothing but our own conciousness exists, the rest of the universe and everyone in it, is an illusion. This idea is solipsism: nothing else exists but our own mind.
Explain why Descartes is considered a rationalist.
Because he doubted the senses and argued that the only thing that cannot be doubted is one's own rational mind.
What is the main difference between parallelism and interactionism?
While both are types of dualism, in parallelism there is no interchange between the mind and body, they just work in perfect synchrony. In interactionism, there is interchange. The mind controls the body and the body informs the mind.
According to Spinoza, why do people believe they have free will?
Because we are more focused on our immediate desires and wants, rather than on why we have these desires (i.e. the prior causes of our thoughts and feelings)
Explain Descartes' solution to the problem of interactionism and the problems with it.
Descartes attempted to solve the interaction problem by arguing that the mind exists in the pineal gland and from there executes tiny movements that trigger the flow of animal spirits through the nerves. The problem is that this theory violates his definition of the mind, because in order for this to work, the mind must move, be spatial, and be material.
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monist, (somewhat) materialist, & empiricist
considered founder of British empiricism
mental events are nothing but by-products of physical events in the brain
T/F Hobbes considered mental phenomena to be epiphenomena.
Hobbes was an ________, because he believed it is the senses that creat brain events, and in turn, the mind.
believed we are born a blank slate (white paper metaphor)
Locke's white paper metaphor
"Let us the suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without an ideas; how comes it to be furnished?.... To this I answer, in one word, from experience."
Locke's Theory of Ideas
starts with a physical sensation (primary quality) registered by 1 of the sense organs, and then transmitted to the mind to be registered as a simple idea (secondary quality). Simple ideas cannot be broken down to any simpler or smaller elements, but they can be constructed together into complex ideas.
Example of simple vs complex ideas
simple idea: the concept of sour or of sweet, or of a color
complex idea: an orange (it is sour, yet sweet, and also an orange color.)
restated law of contiguity (events, or simple ideas, that occur at the same time must be associated with each other)
T/F Hartlet, from a materialist perspective, argued that vibrations within nerves, aka vibratiuncles, were the physical events in the brain that underlay thought.
revived law of frequency and added law of vividness
Mill's reinstatement or the law of frequency, and then addition of the the law of vividness are used to explain the _______ __ _______ between 2 ideas.
strength of association
law of vividness (James Mill)
the more vivid or salient 2 simple ideas are, the stronger their association (when co-occuring)
mental physics (James mill)
the creation of a complex idea is a simple linear procress of adding multiple simple ideas together. The complex idea can be defined as the list of all the simple ideas that went into it.
John Stuart Mill
James Mill's son
posed idea of mental chemistry
mental chemistry (JS Mill)
like a chemical reaction where elements and compounds combine to create something new entirely, so to do simple ideas combine to create new complex ideas.
T/F Under Mill's mental chemistry, the creation of a complex idea is the sum of the simple ideas.
False, the creation of a complex idea is NOT simply the sum of the simple ideas, it is something more or new.
represented culmination of associantionism
combined previous laws of association and added the law of compound association.
empiricist and nominalist
law of compound association
any one idea, whether simple or complex, can be associated with any number of other ideas.
Example of compound association
knowing what a great dane, german shephard, and a poodle are individually leads to the creation of the concept of dog.
Knowing what dogs, cats, deer, elephants are leads to the concept of animals.
rejected Locke's dualism for idealism, aka immaterialism
"to be is to be perceived"
idealism( aka immaterialism)
it is only the mental world (or the world of ideas), and not the physical world, that exists.
Using primary and secondary qualites, then only secondary exists in this view.
"to be is to be perceived"
nothing exists until it is first perceived
T/F Berkeley believed that if no single person was around to perceive something, then that something simply doesnt exist.
While he believed something must be perceived to exists, he also believed God was the ultimate perceiver, in that God is always perceiving everything, making sure it all remains in existence even when no one else is perceiving it.
accepted Berkely's view of perception being key to establishing reality of anything. BUT did not believe in a God, since God could not be perceived.
Hume's belief that there is no God to constantly perceive leads back to the question of "does it still exists when not being perceived?" to which he answered "__________________________"
"I do not know, and i cannot know."
T/F Hume claimed that any knowledge beyond what is directly given by the senses is not justified.
(think of the translation example in the book. You and a russian cannot speak to each other, but add a translator and you can. But, if the translator decides to change the message, or is not good at english or russian, then the original messages may be LOST IN TRANSLATION)
disagreed with Hume's skepticism
empiricist (albeit very different kind than his British and Scottish contemporaries)
Reid found that skepticism arose from 2 main sources:
1) the mind was passive and was subject to the laws of association, giving us no control over the way in which ideas are created in the mind.
2) assumption that the sensations work as a translator, only giving us indirect knowledge of the world. (the dual mind-body theory, is the problem)
Reid's arguments against the 2 sources of skepticism
1) The mind is active and uses its faculties of reason to understand the world around us. One must employ reason to analyze the mind, so there must be more going on than simply association between ideas.
2) By rejecting dualism, we can perceive the world directly, and our ideas correspond to reality.
T/F Reid was a direct realist, because he believed the ideas that arise from perception correspond to reality, and we can know this reality directly, without an intermediate steps, or translation.
naive realism (Reid)
unquestionably accepts the faithfulness of the senses
lead proponent of notion that science could replace superstition and religion
believed science must be based on empirical observation, and cannot be based on one persons observation of events.
T/F Comte's definition of science as one person's private observations not being accurate eliminated introspection, insight, meditation, and mystical revelations as valid means of knowing.
multiple observers have to observe the event, agree on their observations, and even better, it would be desirable to measure and quantify the event, so that observers could record their observations objectively and systematically.
the philosophy that states that living things possess a special, almost spiritual life force that separates them from inanimate matter
T/F Comte believed the primary science was physics, and all other sciences would be explained by the laws of physics.
T/F Under Comte, psychology was considered a branch of biology, studying the nervous system and the anatomy and physiology of the sensory organs.
proposed an alternative to Comte's belief that physics was the primary science, in that psychology was the primary, and all others stemmed from it.
T/F Mach held Berkeley's concept of "to be is to be perceived" in high regard, and believed that because all of reality is just a perception, the study of perception becomes the primary science.
T/F According to Mach, the scientific understanding of anything would amount to the understanding the nature of sensation and the organization of sensations into human knowledge.
Explain the importance of association to the empiricists.
Empiricists argue that all knowledge is accumulation of ideas, and the associations between them, through learning and experience.
Describe the difference between mental physics and mental chemistry.
Mental physics reduces complex ideas down into a simple sum, or list of the simple idea that compose them. Mental chemistry is the idea that complex ideas are not just the sum of simple ideas, they are more than that.
"If a tree falls in the forest and there's no one there to hear it, does it make a sound?" How would John Locke, as an empiricist and a dualist, answer that question? Explain. How would an idealist like Berkeley answer the question? Explain. What about the skeptic Hume? Finally, how would the common-sense empiricist Thomas Reid answer the question? Explain.
Locke was a dualist and accepted the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Because sound is a secondary quality and is therefore only a psychological "thing", it only exists in the mind of the observer - so there if there is no observer, there is no sound. Berkeley. stated that "to be is to be perceived". Thus, you might answer that Berkeley would state that there would be no sound if there was no observer. However, Berkeley also supposed that God was an ultimate perceiver that was always present, so in that sense, there would be a sound. Hume, on the other hand, was a skeptic and atheist, so his answer is simply "I don't know, if I'm not there to observe myself, then i cannot say". Reid would give a common sense answer, "of course there was a sound".
Explain positivism as it was defined by Comte.
Positivism was Comte's attempt to replace religion with science, by stating that only things that are directly observable can be truly known, and are subjects of scientific inquiry. Things known through reflection or introspection do not count as scientific and are therefore not valid knowledge. External events that can be observed and described by multiple persons count as the topic of positivistic science, and nothing else.
Explain why many empiricists tended to be determinists
Empiricists argue for a blank slate mind, that contains nothing until sensory impressions are written upon it. Because the mind does not have the active and innate ability to receive and interpret sensations, then the sensations must organize themselves according to the laws of association, and as a result, all our knowledge is the result of this organizing process. We are at the mercy of our experiences coupled with the laws of association - leaving no room for free will.
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