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DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis

Review these terms from our DNA unit.
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Amino Acid
Carried by tRNA molecules ("trucks"). A long chain of these makes a protein.
Anticodon
Found on a tRNA ("truck"). These are the OPPOSITE letters from the codon on the mRNA.
Codon
Three letters on the mRNA that code for one amino acid.
Deoxyribose
The 5-sided sugar found in DNA.
Ribose
The 5-sided sugar found in RNA.
DNA Polymerase
The enzyme that copies BOTH sides of the DNA during DNA replication.
Genetic Code
The table of codons (3 letters on an mRNA molecule) that indicates which codons code for which amino acids.
Helicase
The enzyme that untwists DNA for replication or transcription.
Leading Strand
The strand of DNA that is replicated continuously by DNA polymerase.
Lagging Strand
The strand of DNA that is replicated by DNA polymerase in short sections called Okazaki fragments which are then joined by ligase.
Ligase
The enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand to create a continuous strand of replicated DNA.
mRNA
The molecule that carries messages from the DNA to the ribosome about how to build a protein.
Nitrogen Bases
The "steps" of a DNA ladder. They include A, T, C & G. (U in place of T for RNA...)
Nucleotide
Contains a phosphate, a nitrogen base (A, T (U), C, G) and a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose). Use for DNA replication or transcription (RNA formation).
Okazaki Fragments
Short pieces of DNA formed by DNA polymerases on the lagging strand of DNA during replication.
Protein
Long chain of amino acids.
Replication
The copying of DNA for cell division. (Going from a monovalent to a bivalent chromosome.)
Replication Fork
The "Y"-shape that occurs as helicase untwists and unzips DNA during replication.
Ribosome
Where mRNA and tRNA ("trucks") come together to build a protein.
RNA Polymerase
The enzyme that copies ONE side of the DNA to make a strand of RNA.
Start Codon
The first codon on all mRNA molecules: AUG.
Transcription
Making a strand of RNA.
Translation
Building a protein at a ribosome.
tRNA
"Trucks" that carry amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein. Contain the ANTI-codon.
Uracil
The nitrogen base found only in RNA. Replaces the T found in DNA.
Watson and Crick
The scientists credited with discovering the double helix shape of a DNA molecule.
Allolactose (Lactose)
The inducer molecule for the Lac Operon that causes the repressor (the roadblock) to fall off the DNA.
Lac Operon
A series of genes in an E.Coli bacteria that code for proteins that digest lactose. These genes can be turned on or off.
Operator
The place on the Lac Operon where the repressor (the roadblock) sits and prevents RNA polymerase from continuing. (A.k.a. The On/Off Switch)
Repressor
The roadblock for genes that can be turned on/off like the Lac Operon. The repressor sits on the Operator.
Structural Gene
Any gene that codes for a protein. The Lac Operon has 3 genes that code for the proteins/enzymes that digest lactose