65 terms

Typography

Typographic Letter-Form Parts For Quiz and Test Phil Schimonitz Northeast Community College Norfolk NE
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Cap-height
The implied visual line that runs along the tops of all capital letters.
Meanline
The implied line that established the height of all lower-case letters.
X-Height
The distance from the baseline to the meanline. This height is most easily measured using the lowercase letter x.
Baseline
The implied visual line in which the letterform rests. All letters align optically with the baseline.
Descender
The stroke on a lowercase letterform that falls below the baseline aws in the letters p and q.
Arm
The projecting horizontal stroke that is unattached on one or both ends, as in the uppercase letters T and E.
Stem
The major vertical, or near vertical, portion of a letterform.
Terminal
The end of a stem or stroke without a serif.
Ascender
The stroke of a lowercase letter that rises above the meanline, as in the lowercase letters f, d, k, h, and b.
Leg
The lower diagonal stroke on the letter K.
Spine
The central curved stroke in the letter S.
Bowl
The curved enclosed space of a letterform. The exception is the bottom of a lowercase g, which is called a loop.
Ear
The small stroke that projects from the top, or bowl, of a lowercase g.
Link
The part of a lowercase g that connects the bowl to the loop.
Loop
The curved part of the lowercase g that encloses the lower counter. Similar to a bowl.
Shoulder
A curved stroke projecting from a stem or stroke.
Tail
A diagonal stroke or loop at the end of a letter, as in the letter R.
Eye
The enclosed part of a lowercase e, similar to a counter.
Fillet
The contoured edge that connects the serif to the letterform stroke.
Crossbar
The horizontal stroke connecting the two sides of a letterform, as in the case of the letters H and A.
Hairline
The thinnest strokes within a tyoeface in letterforms that have varying weights.
Serif
Short strokes that extend from and at an angle to the major strokes of a letterform.
Counter
The negative space that is fully or partially enclosed by a letterform.
Spur
A projection smaller than a serif that reinforces the point at the end of a curved stroke, as in uppercase G.
Ball Terminal
The end of a stroke that takes a roughly circular shape, as opposed to a serif or a square end.
Bracket
A curved or wedge-like connection between the stem and serif of some fonts. Not all serifs are bracketed serifs.
Hinting
The use of mathematical instructions to adjust the display of an outline font so that it lines up with a rasterized grid.
Kerning
The process of adjusting the spacing between pairs of letter forms, while tracking (letter-spacing) adjusts spacing uniformly over a range of characters.
Ligature
Two or more letters are joined together to form one glyph or character
Overhang
The degree to which a round or pointed letter (like O or A) extends higher or lower than a comparably sized "flat" letter (like X or H), to achieve an optical effect of being the same size.
Sidebearings
Space that pads the glyph outline on either side.
Old style serif
Typefaces dating back to 1465 that are characterized by a diagonal stress, subtle differences between thick and thin lines (low contrast), and excellent readability. Old style typefaces are reminiscent of the humanist calligraphy from which their forms were derived. Examples: Caslon, Garamond and Goudy Old Style.
Traditional Serif
First appearing in the mid-18th century transitional fonts are among the most common. They are in between modern and old style, thus the name "transitional." Differences between thick and thin lines are more pronounced than they are in old style, but they are still less dramatic than in modern serif fonts. Examples: Times New Roman and Baskerville.
Modern Serif
irst emerging in the late 18th century, they are characterized by extreme contrast between thick and thin lines. Modern typefaces have a vertical stress, long and fine serifs, with minimal brackets. Serifs tend to be very thin and vertical lines are very heavy. Examples: Bodoni and Didot.
Slab Serif (Egyptian)
These fonts have little if any contrast between thick and thin lines. Serifs tend to be as thick as the vertical lines themselves and usually have no bracket. Slab serif fonts have a bold, rectangular appearance and sometimes have fixed widths, meaning that all characters occupy the same amount of horizontal space. Examples: Clarendon and Rockwell.
Typeface
family of fonts
Font
within a typeface
serif
short line or finishing stoke on the end of character stokes and stems
San-serif
no serifs
Classifications of Serif type styles
Old Style
Transitional
Neoclassical and Didone
Slab
Clarendon
Glyphic
Transitional Serifs
by John Baservill
mid 18th century
Neoclassical and Didone
Giambattista Bodoni created it in the late 18th century
got it's name in mid 20th century
vertical with little or no bracketing
stroke terminals are called "balls"
Clarendon
mid 19th century
strokes contrast is slight, and serifs tend to be short to medium length
Released at larger point later on
Glyphic serifs
stoke weight is usually at a minimum and the axis of curved stokes tend to be vertical
distinguishing feature of these typefaces is the triangluar-shaped serif design
sub divided into glyphic and latin
Grotesque Sans Serif
"squared" quality to many of the curves and several designs have the "bowl and loop" lowercase g.
R has a curled leg and G has a spur
Square Sans Serif
based on grotesque character
definite and some instances, dramatic squaring
usually more latitude in character spacing
Geometric Sans Serif
strict mono-lines and character shapes
less readable than grotesques
Humanistic Sans Serif
Roman inscriptional letters
Typographic experts claim them most legible
closely match the design characteristic and proportions
Formal Scripts
17th century
strokes that join them to other letters
Calligraphic Scripts
mimic the writing
connecting or non-connecting
written with flat-tipped writing instrument
Blackletter and Lombardic Scripts
manuscript lettering prior to the invent of movable type
Casual Scripts
suggest informality
written with a brush
connect one letter to next
Decorative Style
largest and most diverse
lengthy blocks of text
signature headlines and similar situations were a strong typographic statement is desired
reflect culture
unorthodox letter shapes and proportions
top / bottom / distinguishable / lowercase / uppercase
It's easier to read the ___ than the ___ because the outline is more ___. ___ is easier to read than ___.
Serif font is easier to read because
it enhances the horizontal flow
Black type on white is easier to read than white on type because
we are used to it and white on black tends to sparkle and ink squeeze can make it harder to read
Bold type can be effective in small doese but large quatnites
causes the white spaces of the letter to fill in hurting readability
Tracking
spacing group of characters
Alignment
generally left aligned
right align for small amount
too much of it will make a layout look rigid
Measure
length of lines of text in a paragraph or column
Leading
Vertical line spacing
old dats of printing and setting blocks of types scripts of lead between the lines depending on how much required space
Grid
guide by which graphic designers can organize copy and paste images in a flexible way, whilst making this content easy to take in and understand
Rag
uneven vertical edgy of a block type, most commonly the right-hand edge, as in the case of left-aligned text.
Widow
word alone at the bottom
orphan
word alone at the top
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