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Midterm 1


rams horn nails (curves up and can dig into the skin)


atrophy of the nail (nails flake off, think systemic disease)


hypertrophy of the nail (thick)


inflammation of nail matrix (specifically the proximal nail fold, NOT the sides of the nail)


inflammation of the nail folds (often associated with ingrown toenail)


breaking of the nail (trauma)


separation of the nail from nail bed; occurrs from distal to proximal


separation of the nail from proximal to distal


splitting or lamination of the nail into layers (flake)


softening of the nail


fungal nails


Overgrowth of cuticle
May be normal variant, lichen planus, dermatomyositis or scleroderma


Spoon nail
Associated with Iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson Syndrome


Pitting of the nails
Associated with psoriasis, alopecia areata, lichen planus

Beau's Lines

horizontal depression across nail plate caused by transient nail growth arrest
Associated with stressful event: MI, PE, high fever

Lindsay's Nail (half and half nails)

distal half is pink or brown and sharply demarcated from proximal half which is dull and white. Obliterates the lunula
Associated with Liver disease and Uremia/azotemia

Mee's Lines

single transverse white band
Associated with arsenic poisoning

Muehrcke's nails

paired, narrow horizontal white bands, separated by normal color which remain immobile as the nail grows
Associated with hypoalbuminemia and Nephrotic syndrome

Red Lunula

associated with Right sided CHF

Hippocratic nails

clubbing of nails
Associated with cardiac disease, COPD, pulmonary disease or GI disease

Splinter hemorrhages

SBE and trichinosis

Telangiectatic proximal nail fold

proximal nail fold becomes tortuous and dilated
Associated with Connective tissue diseases (SLE, dermatomyositis)


periungal, filamentous epidermal spicule


white spots within the nail due to chronic microtrauma


ingrown toenail; nail plate grows into adjacent nail fold


nail fold hypertrophy/hyperkeratosis
Usually secondary to ingrown nail or irritation
ex. Lister's corn

Subungal hematoma

damage to the nail plate (damage to nail bed, that you can see through the nail plate)
Fills potential space with hematoma (hemorrhage) (can squirt out)
Associated with simple and complex nail bed lacerations, open phalanx fractures
Should be drained if >25% of the visible nail plate or if nail plate is visibly unstable

Type 1 Nail Deformity

Acquired with NORMAL nail morphology
Ungual Labia Inflammation
Soft Tissue
Against nail plate
Reversible w/out Matrix Modification

Type 2 Nail Deformity

Acquired with ABNORMAL nail morphology
Acute Angulation
Not reversible
Require matrix modification
No ossesous involvement


absence of one or more nail plates (born this way)
Associated with ichythyosis (scaly fish type)


extra or supernunerary nail plate on a single toe with 1 or more matrices (two nails, one digit)


abnormally large nail plate, otherwise normal appearance


anomalously small nail plate, otherwise normal appearance

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