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33 terms

Nail Disorders

Midterm 1
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Onychogryphosis
rams horn nails (curves up and can dig into the skin)
Onychatrophia
atrophy of the nail (nails flake off, think systemic disease)
Onychauxic
hypertrophy of the nail (thick)
Onychia
inflammation of nail matrix (specifically the proximal nail fold, NOT the sides of the nail)
Paronychia
inflammation of the nail folds (often associated with ingrown toenail)
Onychoclasis
breaking of the nail (trauma)
Onycholysis
separation of the nail from nail bed; occurrs from distal to proximal
Onychomadesis
separation of the nail from proximal to distal
Onychoschizia
splitting or lamination of the nail into layers (flake)
Onychomalacia
softening of the nail
Onychomycosis
fungal nails
Pterygium
Overgrowth of cuticle
May be normal variant, lichen planus, dermatomyositis or scleroderma
Koilonychia
Spoon nail
Associated with Iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Onychopunctata
Pitting of the nails
Associated with psoriasis, alopecia areata, lichen planus
Beau's Lines
horizontal depression across nail plate caused by transient nail growth arrest
Associated with stressful event: MI, PE, high fever
Lindsay's Nail (half and half nails)
distal half is pink or brown and sharply demarcated from proximal half which is dull and white. Obliterates the lunula
Associated with Liver disease and Uremia/azotemia
Mee's Lines
single transverse white band
Associated with arsenic poisoning
Muehrcke's nails
paired, narrow horizontal white bands, separated by normal color which remain immobile as the nail grows
Associated with hypoalbuminemia and Nephrotic syndrome
Red Lunula
associated with Right sided CHF
Hippocratic nails
clubbing of nails
Associated with cardiac disease, COPD, pulmonary disease or GI disease
Splinter hemorrhages
SBE and trichinosis
Telangiectatic proximal nail fold
proximal nail fold becomes tortuous and dilated
Associated with Connective tissue diseases (SLE, dermatomyositis)
Hangnai
periungal, filamentous epidermal spicule
Leukonychia
white spots within the nail due to chronic microtrauma
Onychocryptosis
ingrown toenail; nail plate grows into adjacent nail fold
Onychophosis
nail fold hypertrophy/hyperkeratosis
Usually secondary to ingrown nail or irritation
ex. Lister's corn
Subungal hematoma
damage to the nail plate (damage to nail bed, that you can see through the nail plate)
Fills potential space with hematoma (hemorrhage) (can squirt out)
Associated with simple and complex nail bed lacerations, open phalanx fractures
Should be drained if >25% of the visible nail plate or if nail plate is visibly unstable
Type 1 Nail Deformity
Acquired with NORMAL nail morphology
Ungual Labia Inflammation
Soft Tissue
Against nail plate
Reversible w/out Matrix Modification
Type 2 Nail Deformity
Acquired with ABNORMAL nail morphology
Acute Angulation
Not reversible
Require matrix modification
No ossesous involvement
Anonychia
absence of one or more nail plates (born this way)
Associated with ichythyosis (scaly fish type)
Polyonychia
extra or supernunerary nail plate on a single toe with 1 or more matrices (two nails, one digit)
Macronychia
abnormally large nail plate, otherwise normal appearance
Micronychia
anomalously small nail plate, otherwise normal appearance