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AP Gov Ch. 8
Terms in this set (38)
The person currently in office.
The tendency of lesser-known or weaker candidates to profit in an election by the presence on the ticket of a more popular candidate.
Political Action Committee
A committee set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group that raises and spends campaign contributions on behalf of one or more candidates or caucuses.
Drawing the boundaries of political districts so that districts are very unequal in population.
Drawing the boundaries of political districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to make it easy for candidates of the party in power to win elections in those districts.
An increase in the votes that congressional candidates usually get when they first run for election.
An issue dividing the electorate on which rival parties adopt different policy positions to attract voters.
An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party or candidate with conditions, goals, or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves.
An election used to fill an elective office.
A primary election limited to registered party members. Prevents members of the other parties from crossing over to influence the nomination of an opposing party's candidate.
A party election that permits voters to choose on election day the primary in which they wish to vote. They may vote for candidates of only one party.
An election prior to the general election in which voters select the candidates who will run on each party's ticket. Before presidential elections, a presidential primary is held to select delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties.
A primary election that permits all voters, regardless of party, to choose candidates.
A second primary election held in some states when no candidate receives a majority of the votes in the first primary; the runoff is between the two candidates with the most votes.
An election held to select delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties.
Spending by political action committees on political matters that is done directly and not by giving money to a candidate or party.
Funds solicited from individuals, corporations, and unions that are spent on party activities, rather than on behalf of a specific candidate.
Voting for a candidate because one favors his or her ideas for addressing issues after the election.
Voting for or against the candidate or party in office because on likes or dislikes how things have gone in the recent past.
Interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code may advertise for or against candidates; if their source of funding is corporations or unions, they have some restrictions on broadcast advertising.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
Banned soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions.
At a political presidential convention, when one candidate does not have a majority, they go to ballots to negotiate a victor.
Bush v. Gore
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
Federal Election Campaign Acts
Law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Federal Election Commission
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.
Federal Matching Funds
Federal Election Campaign Act provides for public funding of presidential candidates. Candidates must raise at least $5,000 in individual contributions of $200 or less in each of 20 states and may then apply for federal funds to match all individual contributions of $250 or less that they receive.
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.
Commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation.
A general election that does not coincide with a presidential election year, but occurs two years into the term of a president i.e. in the middle of a president's term in office, hence the name mid-term.
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions, that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to ratify a campaign platform.
After national conventions, the approval ratings of candidates tend to go up, since the media shows people the unity of each party during the conventions.
The assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts.
Shaw v. Reno
The Court ruled that although it was a legitimate goal for state legislatures to take race into account when they draw electoral districts in order to increase the voting strength of minorities, they may not make race the sole reason for drawing district lines.
Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission
Corporations have a 1st Amendment right to expressly support political candidates for Congress and the White House.
A state in which no candidate has overwhelming support, meaning that any of the major candidates have a reasonable chance of winning the state's electoral college votes.
Day when several states hold their presidential primaries.
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