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Chapter 3: The Qualitative Research Process
Terms in this set (35)
-A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning
-Useful in understanding human experiences such as pain, caring, powerlessness and comfort
-Focuses on understanding the whole
-Consistent with holistic philosophy of nursing
Frameworks for Qualitative Studies
-The goal of qualitative research is not hypothesis testing.
-Frameworks are used in a different sense in qualitative research.
-Each typer of qualitative research is guided by a particular philosophical stances
Data from Qualitative Studies
-Incorporate perceptions and beliefs of researcher and participants
Phenomenological Qualitative research
Describes and captures the "lived experience" of study participants
Grounded Theory Qualitative Research
Explores how people define reality and how their beliefs are related to actions.
Ethnographic Qualitative Research
Seeks to understand people (ways of living, believing, adapting, etc)
Historical research Qualitative Research
Searches throughout history for generalities
Methods Similar in Qualitative and Quantitative Research
-State problem or question
-justify significance of study
-identify and gain access to data sources
-Select study subjects
Selection of subjects (participants)
-Subjects are referred to as participants
-May volunteer to be involved in study
-May be selected by researcher because of their particular knowledge, experience or views related to study
Purposive sampling methods
-May select individuals typical in relation to the phenomenon under study
-May seek out individuals different in some way from other participants to get diverse perspectives
-Snowballing technique is commonly used
-Decisions regarding sample size differ from quantitative studies.
-Based on needs related to study purpose
-Number of subjects is usually smaller.
-Case studies with only one subject may be used
-6 to 10 subjects is not unusual
Characteristics of Researcher-Participant Relationships
-Participants are treated as colleagues rather than subjects
-The researcher must have the support and confidence of participants to the complete study.
-Maintaining relationships is of utmost importance.
Data collection methods: Observation
-What is going on here?
-Look and listen carefully
-Note routine activités
-Focus on details
-Note processes as well as discrete events
-Note unexpected events
Data collection methods: Interviews
-Researcher defines focus
-No fixed sequence of questions
-Questions tend to change as researcher gains insights from previous interviews and/ or observations
-Respondents are encouraged to raise issues not addressed by researcher
Data collection methods: Text
-May be written by participants on a particular topic at request of researcher
-Narratives may be solicited by mail rather than in person
-Text developed for other purposes, such as patient records or procedure manuals, can be accessed for qualitative analysis
Data management characteristics
-Qualitative data analysis occurs concurrently with data collection rather than sequentially, as in quantitative research
-The researcher is simultaneously gathering data, managing a growing bulk of collected data, and interpreting the meaning of data.
Goals of Description
-Become familiar with data: read and reread notes and transcripts; recall observations and experiences; listen to audiotapes; view videotapes
-Become immersed in data.
Types of Descriptive analysis
-Researcher explores personal feelings and experiences that may influence study and integrates the understanding into study.
-Requires conscious awareness of self.
-Used in some phenomenological research to help researcher avoid misinterpreting phenomenon as it is being experienced by participants
-Bracketing is suspending or laying aside what researcher knows about experience being studied
-Analysis focuses on reducing large volume of acquired data to facilitate examination
-Researcher begins to attach meaning to elements of data
-Researcher discovers classes of things, persons, events, and properties
-Way of indexing or identifying categories in data
-Codes may be placed in data at time of data collection, when entering data into computer, and during later examination of data.
-Data segments can then be retrieved by coding category.
-Are equivalent to summary tables used in quantitative studies
-Allow researcher to convey succinctly main ideas of study
-Codes used to organize the display
Types of data analysis
Coding, used earlier for description, also can be used to expand, transform, and reconceptualize data, providing opportunities for more diverse analyses
-Used to record insights or ideas related to notes, transcripts, or codes
-Moves researcher toward theorizing and is conceptual rather than factual
-May link data or use specific piece of data as an example of conceptual idea
-Can be instructive in understanding a phenomenon of interest
-Includes a sequence of events with a beginning, middle, and an end
-Stories have their own logic and are temporal.
-A qualitative means of formally analyzing stories
-Researcher unpacks story structure.
-Can be used to determine how people tell stories (how they shape events; how they make a point; how they "package" events and react to them; how they communicate their stories to audiences)
Interpretation of Qualitative Results
-The researcher offers his or her interpretation of what is going on.
-The focus is on understanding and explaining beyond that which can be stated with certainty.
-May focus on usefulness of findings for clinical practice.
-Researcher develops hunches about relationships that can be used to formulate tentative propositions.
Rigor in Qualitative Research
-Rigor needs to be defined differently in qualitative research because desired outcome is different.
-Evaluation of rigor is based, in part, on logic of emerging theory and clarity with which it sheds light on phenomenon studied
Characteristics of Rigor
-Scrupulous adherence to a philosophical perspective
-Thoroughness in collecting data
-Consideration of all data in subjective theory development phase
Causes for Lack of Rigor
-Inconsistency in adhering to philosophy of approach being used
-Failure to get away from older ideas
-Poorly developed methods
Insufficient time spent collecting data
-Failure to give careful consideration to all data
Description of Decision Trails
-Strategies by which other researchers, using the same data, can follow logic of original researcher and arrive at same conclusions
-Requires researcher to establish rules for categorizing data, arriving at ratings, or making judgments
Requirements for Decision Trails
-A record is kept of all decision rules used in data analysis to support the study's conclusions and emerging theory.
-All raw data are stored and available for review, if requested
Opposition to Decision Trails
-Some qualitative researchers are concerned that data analysis would become too mechanistic.
-Some qualitative researchers are opposed to the expectation that other researchers will reach the same conclusions when each researcher's work is unique
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