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Cell Structures

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plasma membrane
thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids
nuclear envelope
membrane surrounding the nucleus
nucleus
contains the DNA and controls all of the cell's activities
nucleolus
helps to assemble ribosomes
cytoplasm
material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
mitochondrion
breaks down food to make ATP
endoplasmic reticulum
internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes that modify proteins and creates "packages" to send them to other locations
lysosome
filled with enzymes to breakdown dead cell parts and foreign objects; only found in animal cells
ribosome
synthesizes proteins
vacuole
stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells
cell wall
provides structure and support around cell membrane of plants, fungi, and some bacteria
chloroplast
uses sunlight to make carbohydrates in plants, some bacteria and protists
centriole
organize the spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during animal cell mitosis
cytoskeleton
network of proteins in the cytoplasm that help cell maintain its shape
cilia
hairlike projections that help some cells move
flagellum
whiplike structure some cells use for propulsion
pseudopod
projection of cytoplasm that some protists use for movement and feeding
prokaryote
cell without a nucleus, it contains a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes; bacteria
eukaryote
cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; animals, plants, protists, fungi