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Oxygination Lecture Notes Bish 2016
Terms in this set (67)
needed to sustain life.
The cardiac and respiratory systems
supply the oxygen demands of the body
The exchange of respiratory gases
occurs between the environment and the blood
is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism
Neural and chemical regulators
control the rate and depth of respiration in response to changing tissue oxygen demands.
Steps in Oxygenation
The process of moving gases into and out of the lungs
The ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and capillaries
Work of breathing
The effort required to expand and contract the lungs.
An active process stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta; a passive process for expiration
Moves blood to and from the alveolar capillary membranes for gas exchange
Chemical produced in the lungs to maintain the surface tension of the alveoli and keep them from collapsing
Collapse of the alveoli that prevents the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen transport Lungs and cardiovascular system
Lungs and cardiovascular system
Carbon dioxide transport
Diffuses into red blood cells and is hydrated into carbonic acid
tidal, residual, forced vital capacity (FVC); spirometry
Respiratory Gas Exchange
The thickness of the alveolar capillary membrane affects the rate of diffusion.
-Oxygen transport = Lungs + cardiovascular (CV) system
-Hemoglobin carries O2 and CO2 Carbon dioxide transport
The thickness of the alveolar capillary membrane
affects the rate of diffusion.
Regulation of Respiration
Neural regulation and
◦ Maintains the rate and depth of respirations based on changes in the blood concentrations of CO2 and O2, and in hydrogen ion concentration (pH).
◦ Chemoreceptors sense changes in the chemical content and stimulate neural regulators to adjust.
◦ Central nervous system controls the respiratory rate, depth, and rhythm.
◦ Cerebral cortex regulates the voluntary control of respiration.
involves delivery of deoxygenated blood (blood high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen) to the right side of the heart and then to the lungs, where it is oxygenated
Oxygenated blood (blood high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide) then travels from the lungs to the left side of the heart and the tissues.
Two atria and two ventricles
as the myocardium stretches, the strength of the subsequent contraction increases
mitral and tricuspid close
aortic and pulmonic close
Myocardial blood flow
Unidirectional through four valves S1: mitral and tricuspid close S2: aortic and pulmonic close
Coronary artery circulation
Coronary arteries supply the myocardium with nutrients and remove wastes.
Arteries and veins deliver nutrients and oxygen and remove waste products
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction
Cardiac output (CO) =
Stroke volume (SV) × Heart rate (HR)
Resistance to left ventricular ejection
Autonomic nervous system
Influences the rate of impulse generation and the speed of conduction pathways
sympathetic nervous system
Increases the rate of impulse generation and impulse transmission and innervates all parts of the atria and ventricle
Decreases the rate and innervates atria, ventricles, and sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes
Originates with the sinoatrial (SA) node or pacemaker and is transmitted to the atrioventricular (AV) node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers
An electrocardiogram (ECG)
reflects the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate carbon dioxide produced by cellular metabolism
Alveolar ventilation inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide
Inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
Blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes
Disturbances in conduction
Caused by electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node (dysrhythmias)
Altered cardiac output
Insufficient volume is ejected into the systemic and pulmonary circulation; the result of left-sided or right-sided heart failure
Impaired valvular function
Acquired or congenital disorder of a cardiac valve by stenosis or regurgitation
Coronary artery flow to the myocardium insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands; results in angina, myocardial infarction (MI) and/or acute coronary syndrome (ACS
Infants and toddlers
School-aged children and adolescents
Young and middle-aged adults
Cardioprotective nutrition = Diets rich in fiber; whole grains; fresh fruits and vegetables; nuts; antioxidants; lean meats; and omega-3 fatty acids.
People who exercise for 30 to 60 minutes daily have a lower pulse rate and blood pressure, decreased cholesterol level, increased blood flow, and greater oxygen extraction by working muscles.
Lifestyle risk factors
◦ Associated with heart disease, COPD, and lung cancer
◦ The risk of lung cancer is 10 times greater for a person who smokes than for a nonsmoker.
Excessive use of alcohol and other drugs impairs tissue oxygenation.
A continuous state of stress or severe anxiety increases the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of the body.
CO2 and water.
When you exhale, you excrete carbonic acid in the form of
Optimal Acid-Base Balance
The blood pH is maintained in the normal range of 7.35 to 7.45
Caused by retention of too much acid or loss of too much base.
Caused by loss of too much acid or retention of too much base.
HCO3 loss or H+ retention
HCO3 excess or H+ loss
Expected in all well individuals Requires normal physiologic functioning Indication of homeostasis
Develops as a complication of another underlying condition Never considered "normal," but may be "expected" if a chronic condition (e.g., compensation) is present
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