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Psychology 1010 Chapter 3 Vocab
Terms in this set (59)
What are neurons?
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
What is the cell body(also known as soma) ?
the largest component of the neuron that coordinates the information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive.
What is the nucleus?
houses chromosomes that contain your DNA.
What are dendrites?
Receives information from other neuron and relay it to the cell body.
What is the axon?
Carries information to the other neurons, muscles or glands.
What is the synapse?
the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.
What is myelin sheath?
an insulating layer of fatty material.
What are glial cells?
support cells found in the nervous system.
What is a sensory neuron?
receives information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord.
What are motor neurons?
These carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement.
What is conduction?
when information has to travel inside the neuron via an electrical signal that travels from the dendrite to the cell body to the axon.
What is transmission?
the signal has to be passed from one neuron the another, usually through chemical messengers traveling across the synapse.
What is resting potential?
the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane.
What are terminal buttons?
Knob-like structures that branch out from an axon.
What are neurotransmitters?
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites.
What are receptors?
parts of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters and either initiate or prevent a new electrical signal.
What is synaptic transmission?
allows neurons to communicate with one another.
What is Acetylcholine?
a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control.
What is dopamine?
a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure and emotional arousal.
What is glutamate?
the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, meaning that it enhances the transmission of information between neurons.
What are endorphins?
chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain.
What are agonists?
drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.
what are antagonists?
drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter.
What is the nervous system?
an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the day.
What is the central nervous system?
composed of the brain and spinal cord. Receives sensory information from the external world, processes and coordinates this information, sends commands to the skeletal and muscular systems for action.
What is the peripheral nervous system?
connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles.
What is the somatic nervous system?
a set of nerves that conveys information between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands.
What is the sympathetic nervous system?
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations.
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
helps the body return to a normal resting state.
What are spinal reflexes?
simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
What is the hindbrain?
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord.
What is the medulla?
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration.
What is reticular formation?
regulates sleep, wakefulness and levels of arousal.
What is the cerebellum?
a large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
What is the pons?
a structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.
What is the midbrain?
contains two main structures, the tectum and the tegmentum.
what is the subcortical structures?
areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the center of the brain.
What is a thalamus?
relays and fliters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.
What is the hypothalamus?
regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst and sexual behavior.
What is the pituitary gland?
the "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.
What is the hippocampus?
critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex.
What is the amygdala?
located at the tip of each horn of the hippocampus, plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories.
What is the basal ganglia?
a set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements.
What is the cerebral cortex?
the outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye, and divided into two hemispheres.
What is the corpus callosum?
connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres.
What is the occipital lobe?
located at the back of the cerebral cortex, processes visual information.
What is the parietal lobe?
located in front of the occipital lobe, carries out functions that include processing information about touch.
What is the temporal lobe?
responsible for hearing and language
What is the frontal lobe?
has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgment.
What are association areas?
composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex
What are mirror neurons?
active when an animal performs a behavior , such as reaching for or manipulating an object, and they are also activated when another animal observes the first animal as it performs the same behavior.
What is a gene?
the major unit of hereditary transmission.
What is a chromosome?
strands of DNA wound around each other in a double helix confiugration.
What are monozygotic twins?
twins who develop from the splitting of a single fertilized egg and therefore share 100% of their genes.
What are dizygotic twins?
developed from two separate fertilized eggs and share 50% of their genes, the same as any two siblings born separately.
What is epigenetics?
environmental influences that determine whether or not genes are expressed, or the degree to which they are expressed, without altering the basic DNA.
What is computerized axial tomography?
shows different densities of tissue in the brain.
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