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30 terms

Biology Test Bank

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People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their
Frontal Cortex
The localization of a function such as speech production to the right or left side of the brain is called
lateralization
The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.
frontal
An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
fMRI
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of
visual perception.
In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord. As a result, his legs were paralyzed. Andrew's injury was located in his
central nervous system
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
touch
Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?
the sympathetic nervous system
A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when his arm was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of
brain plasticity
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
The visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates
plasticity
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
If your ________ is destroyed, the left side of your brain could not control the movements of your right hand.
brainstem
Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
hypothalamus
After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
parasympathetic nervous system.
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
neurotransmitters
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as
acetylcholine
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay incoming pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord.
sensory neurons
Wernicke's area is typically located in the left ________ lobe.
temporal
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
plasticity
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
depression
After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty
speaking fluently.
The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their
temporal lobes.
Neurotransmitters are released from the knoblike terminals at the end of the
axon
To identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n)
PET scan.
Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a
severed spinal cord
Information travels through axons that are bundled into the "cables" that we call
nerves
A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)
agonist
The most extensive regions of the brain, which enable learning and memory, are called the
association areas