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History of Law
Law Enforcement DSST - 1
Terms in this set (47)
Development of the US Law Enforcement System was modeled on ___________'s system. Influence was particularly strong during the colonial period.
Organized Law Enforcement can be traced back to the year ________.
In 1200 AD, law breakers were pursued by a ______, led by the shire reeve or mounted officer. Able-bodied men who could hear commotion were obligated to help.
This was the common form of dispensing justice in 1200 AD, rather than a trial. No organized form of criminal justice existed in those days. Guilt was assumed.
Appointment of ______ was introduced in the 13th century in English towns and cities. These were men who kept a night and day watch to look for thieves and fires.
Statue of Winchester
In 1285, the __________________ laid down rules relating to British police practices. Created a watch and ward system in British towns.
Watch and Ward System
A system created by the Statute of Winchester to maintain law and order in British towns.
Sir Robert Peel
The man who petitioned the British Parliament to form the London Metropolitan Police Force.
Metropolitan Police Act
In 1829, the British Parliament passed the ______________________, petitioned by Sir Robert Peel.
The world's first police force, created by the Metropolitan Police Act. They became the model for other forces around the world.
Sir Robert Peel's mission was founded on the _____________ belief, that it is better to prevent crime than after it has occurred.
Sir Robert Peel borrowed many concepts from the ___________; ranking system, uniform, authoritarian command and discipline. He felt that the police needed structure to develop efficiency.
This form of policing was inefficient and corrupt; the officers could do little to prevent crime or arrest offenders, and there were too few personnel.
This was the most organized and American officer force, based in Charleston, South Carolina. They were responsible for finding runaway slaves and ensuring they were well-behaved.
This act was passed by Congress in 1883. It ended Andrew Jackson's spoils system, creating a system of hiring government employees based on their qualifications. A big step towards government becoming a bureaucracy.
This is a system of firing supporters of the opponent and replacing them with one's own supporters upon election. Most federal workers don't have to be concerned about losing their jobs when a new party takes office.
Modifications had to be made to the British System as applied to the US due to the _________________ and widely dispersed population.
This provided a good hiding place for law breakers, and it was difficult to track down the perpetrators of rimes.
Citizen Posses, Vigilante Groups
_____________ and __________ were the main means of policing the frontier. (Wild Bill Hitchcock, Wyatt Earp)
This is the name for extralegal activities by individuals or groups who take the law into their own hands for the sake of establishing law and order. (Lynch mobs, South Carolina Moderators, East Texas Regulators)
New York City
The first watchmen and uniformed officers were hired in ____________ in the 17th century. Small scale organized law enforcement started early in US cities.
In 1830, the City of ___________________ hired 120 men for the night watch, and 24 for the day watch in America's first organized police force. Stephen Girard donated obey to help the city build the police force modeled after the London Metropolitan System.
Political Influence, Corruption
In the 19th century, __________ and ___________ plagued American policing. Personnel standards were appalling, leading to inefficiency and lack of professionalism.
In the 19th century, officers were poorly supervised due to _____________________, and they could easily avoid their duties.
Old fashioned _____________ were introduced in the 19th century, but officers sabotaged them or claimed they didn't work to evade work duties.
_____ were not regulated officer equipment until 19th century. Due to increase in violence and disorder, officers turned to weaponry to protect themselves.
Rise of police professionalism was spearheaded by __________________ who served as police chief in Berkeley, California 1905-1932.
This was an increase in policing standards to stamp out corruption. Advocated training and education for officers.
A group of ___________________ wanted to professionalize the officer's job, and remove political influence from policing. Wanted to improve communication and form specialized units like traffic and juvenile units to improve efficiency.
Juvenile Units, Lola Baldwin
Introduction of _____________ led to hiring the first female officer, ___________, who was limited to dealing with children.
Alice Stebbins Wells
This woman was the leader of policewomen's movement, giving talks around the country.
A negative side-effect of police professionalization: formation of police subculture. Rank and file officers felt disconnected from administrators and opposed reforms.
These developed due to the offices who opposed the reforms.
State Police, Bureau of Investigation
These 2 new law enforcement agencies emerged in the 20th century.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
This was the new name for the Bureau of Investigation. Established from an order by President Theodore roosevelt. The first federal law enforcement agency in the US.
Two way radio, patrol car, telephone
The most fundamental technological improvements for policing. They increased the officer's world load.
Vollmer's protege, who helped develop an efficient formula to manage personnel. He was the police chief in Wichita 1928-35, Dean of Criminology at University of California 1950-60, and Superintendent of Chicago Police 1960-67.
This was commissioned by President Hoover in 1929. Concerns the criminal justice system. Revealed the extent of police abuse of suspects. (National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement)
J Edgar Hoover
This man was the director of the FBI in the 1930s. He had a critical impact on local policing in setting educational and training models for officers, the development of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), and the establishment of the FBI crime lab.
in the 1960s, the public called for ____________, wanting limitations over police practices. There was an emphasis on constitutional rights of suspects and tensions over race.
Created 1970 by Mayor John V Lindsay, this was a response to newspaper articles concerning police corruption in NYC.
In the 1950-70s _____________ were very poor and officers regularly breached legal rules. Police subculture of secrecy, public hostility, and solidarity meant they were very isolated from the community, especially the blacks.
Civil Rights Act
In 1964, this act prohibited discrimination based on gender. More women applied to become police officers, and existing female officers could raise their rank.
Standard Operating Procedure Manual
Police discretion was managed through the publication of the __________________________, the bible of Police Management. This attempted to regulate the use of deadly force, high-speed chases, and domestic violence complaints
1980-90s, creation of ______________ of police groups monitored and investigated complaints against police actions. Average citizens played a vital part in the accountability of officers.
________________ took off in the 1980-90s, when police realized they could not fight crime on their own. Partnership between police and community, developing programs to solve specific problems, giving rank and file officers more power in daily decisions.
The practice of stopping and or searching a person not because of any suspected criminal activity, but because of their race.
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