49 terms

Chapter 3 & 4

1. ____________________ is the activation of receptors in the various sense organs.
just noticeable difference
2. _______________ __________ ________________ __________________ is the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time.
absolute threshold
3. The smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present is called ____________________ ______________________.
subliminal perception
4. The process by which subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind, influencing behavior is called _________________ __________________.
5. ____________________________ is the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information.
sensory adaption
6. The tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging _________________ _______________________.
7. This refers to the purity of the color people see and it is called _______________.
8. The ________________ is a clear membrane that covers the surface of the eye; protects the eye and is the structure that focuses most of the light coming into the eye.
9. The ____________________ is another clear structure behind the iris, suspended by muscles; finishes the focusing process begun by the cornea
10. The visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision are called the _____________.
light adaption
11. The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness is called _______________ ______________.
after images
12. The images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed are called _______________________.
13. The thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear, just like a drum skin covers the opening in a drum is called the ___________ _____________________.
14. The ____________________ nerve is a bundle of axons that receives signals from hair cells in the inner ear and sends them to the brain
15. The term for the sensation of a taste is called _____________________.
16. The sense of smell is called _________________________.
olfactory bulbs
17. The areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells are called ________________________ ____________________.
18. The body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses are called _________________ senses.
19. The sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other is called the ____________________ sense.
20. The process by which sensations are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion is ___________________________.
figure ground
A Gestalt principle known as __________________________ ____________ is the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background.
22. The Gestalt principle of ___________________ is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
The Gestalt principle of ___________________ is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
depth perception
24. The ability to perceive the world in three dimensions is known as _______________________ _____________________.
__________________________ cues for perceiving depth require one eye only.
26. _____________________ cues for perceiving depth require both eyes.
perceptual set
27. __________________ ______________ is the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions.
extrasensory perception
28. _____________________ __________________ is the claim of perception that occurs without the use of normal sensory channels such as sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.
29. The study of ESP, ghosts, and other subjects that do not normally fall into the realm of ordinary psychology is called ____________________.
1. _______________________ is a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment.
altered state
2. The state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness is called an _______________________ ______________________ of consciousness.
circadian rhythm
3. The _______________ __________________ is a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period.
4. ____________________ are brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds.
restorative theory
5. The ____________________ ____________________ of sleep proposes that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.
6. ________________ waves are brain waves that indicate an awake state of relaxation.
rapid eye movement
7. ______________ ______________ is a stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream.
night terrors
8. ___________________ _______________________ are a relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.
9. REM sleep is also known as ____________ sleep because there is high lever of brain activity.
10. ______________ is the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.
sleep apnea
11. ________________ ______________ is a disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more.
12. ___________________ is a sleep disorder in which a person falls sleep without warning.
13. The state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion is called _______________.
14. When more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect it is called __________________________________.
15. The physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems are called ____________________________.
psychological dependence
16. The feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being is ________________________ __________________________.
17. _______________ are drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.
18. Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system are known as _____________.
19. ________________________ are a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins.
psychogenic drugs
20. ______________________ ________________________ are drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication.