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Chapter 2: Theories of Development
Terms in this set (75)
Which of the theories relies on the understanding of internal drives & emotions to answer the "whys" of human development?
Psychoanalytical theorists suggest that human development depends on ____________?
Which of the theories most accurately describes Freud's model of personality?
Which aspect of our personality demands to be satisfied in physically pleasurable ways?
Jada saw some money on the kitchen table. She really wanted to take it but her conscience kept her from it. Which part of Jada's personality is telling her that it would be socially unacceptable to take the money?
According to Freud's model of personality, what can best demonstrate the functioning of the id?
a person's basic sexual & aggressive impulses
Freud arrived as his developmental theories through his work with which of the groups?
the childhood memories of adults with serious mental disorders
According to Freud's theory of psychosexual development, which of the following occurs when an inadequate early environment fails to meet the needs of any particular stage of psychosexual maturation?
fixation, characterized by behaviors that reflect unresolved problems & unmet needs
The perpetrators of _____________are more likely to forget the incidents than are the ______________
Freud is to psychosexual as Erikson is to _______________
Erikson is a psychosocial theory because it involves which type of interactions?
internal drives & cultural demands
Elsa was frequently neglected as a child. As an infant, she would be left in we diapers, & she was not fed on a regular schedule. Give an example of which crisis was not properly resolved.
infant needs to have experienced some mistrust in order to learn to identify people who are not trustworthy
Which factor is generally considered to be an essential aspect of an infant's first psychosocial task?
trust vs. mistrust
According to Erikson, what is the central issue of adolescence?
must examine his identity & roles he must occupy
Erikson's dilemma of intimacy vs. isolation is associated with what developmental age?
Generativity is a sense of wanting to give back to ___________________.
society & future generations
Carolyn is thinking of her children & what they are to become. She wants to see her children succeed & raise healthy families of their own. Carolyn spends more & more time thinking about how best to help her children become good people who contribute to society. Which of Erikson's stages is Carolyn most likely experiencing?
generativity vs. stagnation
A self-absorbed, nongenerative adult who is not concerned with establishing & guiding a new generation will be at risk for?
What is considered to be the major weakness of psychoanalytic theories?
the fuzziness of many of their concepts
Watson believed that children could be trained to do anything through?
manipulation of the environment
In classical conditioning, if the sour taste of lemon juice automatically causes your mouth to pucker, the lemon juice is the _____________________ & the pucker of lips & tongue is the _______________.
unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
If you are teaching a child to produce a reflexive response following a non-reflexive stimulus, which method of learning are you employing?
Classical conditioning plays an important role in __________________
"Little Albert" was a subject of whose research?
Behavior is more likely to reoccur if _____________________________
positive reinforcement is a consequence
A boy is pestering his mother for candy in the grocery store, whining for ten minutes & saying things like,"I want candy! Please? Just this once! Oh, come on, Mom, please?" His mother ignores him for ten minutes, but finally gives in & says, "Oh, all right. Here it is. Just stop whining!" If the boy engages in more whining in the future, & his mother gives in more easily, what would apply to the mother?
Miguel is expected to clean his room & to empty all trash in the house. When Miguel forgets his chores, he is grounded. Which of the following has been appropriately applied if Miguel remembers to do his chores?
What is credited with introducing the term operant conditioning?
learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of the consequences they bring about
An example of extinction: You stop buying lottery tickets after spending several hundred dollars & never ___________
Which results in behaviors that are difficult to distinguish?
What is a common mistake that parents make when trying to stop unwanted behaviors?
Which theorists is primarily responsible for social-cognitive learning theory?
An example that best summarizes social-cognitive learning theory: Rewards & punishments are not always necessary as children learn through ____________ siblings' interactions with their parents.
According to Bandura, which of the following terms best describes the expectancies we acquire about what we can & cannot do?
Niko plans to go to a good college. He seems unconcerned about competitive admissions policies because he believes that if he studies hard, he can get in wherever he wants. Bandura would consider this an example of _________________________
The principles of social-cognitive theory: When Janet responds angrily to a request from her daughter Sue, Sue's sister, who observed this response, decides she will ____________ before asking for a new stereo.
What would be considered a strength of social-cognitive theory?
they seem to give an accurate picture of the way in which many behaviors are learned
Which theories is concerned with developmental aspects of thinking, memory & logic?
Babies frequently engage in repetitive actions using their hands & their eyes. Give an example of statements best explains this behavior.
use their motor skills & senses to build mental pictures of the world around them
According to the principles of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, how you act a party depends upon _______________ to guide & direct your behavior?
Give an example that best defines the word scheme according to Piaget.
when pick up a ball, use the picking-up scheme
2yr old Luke pointed to a cow in a pasture & said "Doggie!" The child using to ___________________ name the animal.
According to Piaget's theory, give an example that bes applies to the process of assimilation.
a baby who grasps a toy (is assimilating it to his grasp scheme)
3 year old Tran used to call all flying objects such as airplanes & slowly falling leave "birds." Now he correctly labels airplanes, butterflies, birds & bees. Which Piagetian process has Tran accomplished?
Give an example that is best description of the process of accommodation.
When a baby grasps a square object for the 1st time, he will accommodate through assimilation
Piaget believed that children use both assimilation & accommodation to create schemes that fit the reality of their environments. Which terms did he use to describe this process?
What is the 1st stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
In which stage of cognitive development does a child use symbols to thing & communicate?
What best defines the term conservation according to Piaget?
2 year old Sven can use crayons & paper to draw pictures. According to Piaget, why is Sven drawing pictures?
to think & communicate
During which Piaget's stages does child learn to manipulate ideas, concrete objects, or events, as well as use abstract ideas & hypothetical situations in solving problems?
Which theorists is known for the development of socialcultural theory?
5 year old Elena can tie her shoes, but she needs her mother's help to untie them. She also needs her mother's help to button her sweater. Vygotsky would suggest that this situation illustrates Elena's __________________
zone of proximal development
Jan likes to fix her own breakfast, but the milk carton is too heavy for her to manage on her own. Her mothers pours milk into a special pump dispenser just for Jan. Which of the following has Jan's mother provided?
An adult adapts a process to a child's developmental level in order to assist the child in developing a new skill or ability. What would Vygotsky call this process?
"Social interactions are the most important contributions to a child's healthy development." Which theories would most likely support this statement?
Information processing theorists liken the human mind to ____________________.
Before information such as a grocery list or a friend's birthday can be stored in long-term memory, which the information processed?
sensory memory to short-term memory
Neo-Piagetian theorists combine, give an example to explain cognitive development in children.
the process of understanding a spoken word...
What was a finding of Kail's (1990,2008) research on children's cognitive development?
younger children's short-term memories are both more limited in capacity & less efficient than those of older children
Developmentalists who study children's cognitive development from a Piagetian perspective & from an information-processing perspective would agree upon which observations about children's cognitive development?
they ignore the role of emotions in development
emphasizes linguistic & social factors in cognitive development
Describe Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
children in pairs & groups produce more sophisticated ideas than children who work problems alone
Give an example of one of the findings in testing the principle of conservation.
2 containers with equal amounts of liquid, our into a (new) different shaped container, are they the same amount?
Give an example research that is the focus of behavioral genetics.
researchers in the Netherlands have been studying a number of variables in identical & fraternal twins
In looking at the relationship between heredity & IQ, give an example.
parents who themselves have higher IQ scores are not only likely to pass their "good IQ" genes to their children, but also a more stimulating environment
What is likely to influence IQ?
heredity & environment
The idea that certain human behaviors have developed & persisted in order to ensure survival of the species is drawn from ______________________
What is an aspect of the sociobiology theory of human development?
an approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival
Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development places primary emphasis on _____________________
Which contexts of development includes the values & beliefs of the culture in which a child is growing up?
Which contexts of development includes the institutions of the culture that affect children's development indirectly?
Which contexts of development includes those variables to which people are exposed directly, such as families, schools, religious institutions & neighborhoods?
What do psychoanalytic & most learning theories have in common?
environmental influence of nature
An important trend in the study of human development involves incorporating many theoretical perspectives in order to better explain development. What describes this approach?
Teachers may provide support resources such as diagrams to students to help them understand a concept. These may impose what kind of cognitive load?
a teacher wants to encourage parents/guardians to become active participants in their children's education. which strategy is likely to be most effective in encouraging such participation?
Electric Motor Study: what are the results when students are given a conceptually demanding question song with instructions in terms of transfer questions?
T/F: Currently the top 10 percent of income earners in the United States own 70% of the wealth, and the wealthiest 1 percent own more than the bottom 95%.
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Need to know
If you decided to continue in the field of psychology, what type of psychologist would you want to be? Why?
Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. a. social cognition b. physical proximity c. stimulation value d. utility value e. complementarity f. stereotype g. attribution theory h. self-serving bias i. nonverbal communication j. generational identity. An attraction between opposite types of people is called __________.
_____ are the differing sets of behaviors that a culture considers appropriate for males or females.
Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory? a. What time you had lunch yesterday. b. The details of an assignment that is due tomorrow. c. Vividly recalling significant events, such us the death of a famous person. d. The names of all U.S. state capitals. e. Recognizing names and pictures of your classmates many years after they have graduated.