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25 terms

Cell theory and organelles

Chapter 7.1 and 7.2 Biology Miller
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cell
basic unit of life
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a selectively permeable barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
nucleus
in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (can be a plant or animal cell)
prokaryote
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples are archaea and bacteria
cytoplasm
The region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
organelle
one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function
vacuole
storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste
lysosome
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments in cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
ribosome
a small organelle which is responsible for making proteins; made of RNA and protein
endoplasmic reticulum
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy through photosynthesis
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane of plants and most bacteria
lipid bilayer
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
selectively permeable
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
fluid mosaic model
A model of the membrane, showing that it is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in or attached to a double later of phospholipids.
vesicle
Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.
DNA
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
flagella
a slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to move.
pili
Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA