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Autonomic Nervous System:
involuntary automatic functions; heart, digestion, respiration; to subdivisions
part of neuron-long projection that sends messages away from cell body; every neuron has one one "of these"
a type of neuroglia of CNS that physically protects neurons ; plays role in learning and memory
type of neuroglia of PNS; provides structural support; involved with nutrient exchange between cells and interstitial fluid
the outer nucleated cytoplasmic layer of the schwann cell, which encloses the myelin sheath
Nodes of ranvier:
gaps in myelin sheath that occur between schwann cells; increases nerve signal transmission
Ions move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
Resting membrane potential:
an excess of unused ions that store potential energy, that line the outer wall of the plasma membrane
Unequal distribution of ions in Extra Cellular Fluid & Cytosol:
contributes to resting membrane potential; plasma membrane has more K+ leakage channels that allow for more K+ to diffuse down concentration gradient out of cell into ECF
Inability of anions to leave cell:
contributes to resting membrane potential because they are attached to nondiffusible molecules such as ATP
Electrogenic nature of Na/K ATPases:
contributes to resting membrane potential by pumping out Na+ as fast as it leaks in
negative membrane potential becomes less negative, reaches 0, then becomes positive
step by step depolarization and repolarization of each adjacent segment of the plasma membrane
special mode of action potential propagation that occurs along myelinated axons because of uneven distriution of voltage-gated channels
have gap junctions that have connexons which connect cytosol of two cells, which allows faster communication
synaptic cleft w/neurotransmitters that chemically transmit messages from one neuron to another
Excitatory and Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials:
are types of action potentials that neurotransmitters will cause
Excitatory postsynaptic potential:
causes excitation of the effector (which is the structure that carries out the response)
A small molecule neurotransmitter that works at the neuromuscular junction; excitatory or inhibitory
excitatory or inhibitory; very active in emotional responses, including addictive behaviors
inner most layer of meninges; made of bundles of collagen fibers and elastic fibers; helps supply blood to cord
Internal anatomy of the spinal cord:
Anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus, Central canal, Gray matter, White matter
Posterior gray horns:
gray matter of spinal cord containing somatic (voluntary) and automatic (involuntary) sensory nuclei
Lateral gray horns:
gray matter of spinal cord present in thoracic area, upper lumbar and sacral parts of spine; autonomic motor nuclei
tracts that extend entire length of spinal cord; bundles of axons faciliate more efficient communication;
branch of spinal nerves that enters and exits vertebral cavity to supply vetebrae, ligaments, blood vessels of spinal cord
Two point discrimination:
ability to distinguish the touching of two points of body, even when close together
where info is processed by interneurons, determines response and sends to motor neurons
involved with coordination of body movements, skeletal muscle tone, posture & equilibrium
sensory receptor sensitive to mechanical stimuli, stretching of blood vessels, stretching or bending of deformation of tissue
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