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Disease of the upper GI tract in ruminants
Terms in this set (122)
Cleft palate, hare lip, pro/brachygnathia and atresia are all what kind of abnormalities?
What do you call gut distension?
not uncommon progressive abdominal distension by 2-3 days of age?
Term for die with in one week if untreated?
Stomatitis can be caused by what 2 kinds of injury?
physical and chemical/toxic
Gags, dosing guns, stomach tubes, FBs, tooth malocclusion are all types of what kind of injury? (stomatitis)
Formalin, acids, and caustic substances are all types of what kind of injury? (stomatitis)
What are 4 clinical signs associated with stomatitis?
quidding, halitosis, blood, and salivation
Treatment of stomatitis involves symptomatic relief with anti-______ and anti-______?
microbials and inflammatories
Sore mouth, Orf, scabby mouth, contagious pustular dermatitis are all other names for what disease?
Is contagious ecthyma zoonotic?
What is the etiology of contagious ecthyma?
Contagious ecthyma effects what 2 animals the most?
sheep and goats
Clinical signs of contagious ecthyma are more severe in goats or sheep?
Is contagious ecthyma mostly seen in younger animals or older animals?
Young animals with contagious ecthyma exhibit ________, _________ lesions of the mucocutaneous junction of the mouth and nose, and lesions can also be see on the ______?
crusting, proliferative, gums
Can contagious ecthyma affect older immunologically naive animals?
In older animals with contagious ecthyma, lesions may occur at the _____ bad on the tongue, interdigitally, on the ______ of the eye, _______ genitalia, udders or teats?
coronary, conjunctiva, external
What are 2 ddx for contagious ecthyma?
blue tongue, goat/sheep pox
Is goat/sheep pox a foreign animal disease in africa, asia, and southeast europe?
What kind of lesions do animals affected with blue tongue have?
Is diagnosis of contagious ecthyma usually based on clinical sings?
What are 3 other ways contagious ecthyma can be diagnosed?
PCR, immunochemistry, and electron microscopy
Is contagious ecthyma self limiting?
Why might you need topical or systemic anti-microbials when an animal has contagious ecthyma?
secondary bacterial infection
In contagious ecthyma can the disease persist because of scabs?
Can a vaccine produced from the herd be used to treat contagious ecthyma in persistant situations?
Is bovine papular stomatitis zoonotic?
What is the etiology of bovine papular stomatitis?
bovine papular stomatitis affects who?
Calves of what age are usually affected by bovine papular stomatitis?
In bovine papular stomatitis expanding papular rings are located on the _______, ________, and _______ mucosa?
muzzle, nostrils, buccal
How is bovine papular stomatitis spread?
What disease in calves 1-12 months will you see transiet anorexia, salivation, and mild pyrexia?
bovine papular stomatitis
What are 3 ddx for bovine papular stomatitis?
BVD, FMD, and VSD
Is treatment required for bovine papular stomatitis?
What do you need to improve when it comes to bovine papular stomatitis?
How long does recovery of bovine papular stomatitis take?
Does wooden tongue effect ruminants of all ages? what animal is it most common in?
How many forms of wooden tongue are there?
What form of wooden tongue is most common?
What form of wooden tongue presents with salivation, dysphagia, protruding lymphadenopathy, and +/- swelling under jaw?
Does oral exam of wooden tongue (form) reveal painful swollen tongue, and yellow lesions visible below the mucosa?
Does the pus from wooden tongue, form wooden tongue smell bad?
What form of wooden tongue has lesions in oesophagus, oesophageal groove, cardia, rumen and reticulum also presents with weight loss and normal appetite?
In the intestinal form of wooden tongue, ruminal bloat is most marked following what?
Are cattle affected with the intestinal form of wooden tongue usually non-painful/afebrile?
Is rumination abnormal in the intestinal form of wooden tongue?
How do you diagnosis the intestinal form of wooden tongue?
What form of wooden tongue presents with large nodules and ulcers in mouth, head, chest wall, thighs, flanks, and lymphadenopathy +/- discharge?
Is a single animal or several animals usually affected in the cutaneous form of wooden tongue?
How do you diagnosis the cutaneous form of wooden tongue?
What form of wooden tongue presents with chronic mild bloat from oesophageal obstruction and have a resistance to passage of stomach tube?
caudal mediastinal LN
What causes wooden tongue?
Is actinobacillus lignieresii gram positive or negative?
Is actinobacillus lignieresii a commensal?
What are 4 differentials for wooden tongue?
pharyngeal trauma, oral foreign body, dental disease, and orf
What is the definitive diagnosis for wooden tongue? is this usually preformed?
biopsy and culture of lesions, no
How is wooden tongue usually diagnosed?
pus on slide
What will you see on pus slides collected from animals affected with wooden tongue?
What is the treatment of choice for wooden tongue?
Can sodium iodide induce abortion in pregnant cows?
Once sodium iodide is given to animals with wooden tongue, when should it be repeated?
What other kind of drugs can be used to treat wooden tongue when there are refractory cases following culture and sensitivity?
anti-microbials (ceftiafur, penicillin, florfenicol, sulfas, and tetracyclines)
What causes lumpy jaw?
Is actinomyces bovis gram negative or positive?
Is actinomyces bovis a commensal?
What causes pyogranulomatous ostitis/osteomylitis in bones and head and rarely causes soft tissue problems?
What disease presents with firm boney, painless swelling on jaw usually at the level of the central cheek teeth. Initially the swelling is non-draining but may later develop fistulous tracts, teeth involvement will result in pain and dysphagia with gradual emaciation?
Is an animal with lumpy jaw usually bright?
is there LN involvement with lumpy jaw?
What are 4 ddx for lumpy jaw?
tooth root abscess, fracture, tumors, and osteomyelitis
How is lumpy jaw diagnosed?
When are rads helpful in lumpy jaw?
when teeth are involved
Is culture of lumpy jaw usually successful?
What is the goal of treatment for lumpy jaw?
remission then slaughter
How do you treat lumpy jaw?
sodium iodide and anti-microbials
Oral and laryngeal necrobacillosis is known as what?
calf diphtheria is most common where cattle are house in _____ or _____ conditions and in _______?
dirty, crowded, feedlots
What causes calf diphtheria?
Fusobacterium necrophorum (environment)
Does trauma, intercurrent disease, or nutritional deficiency predispose and animal to calf diphtheria?
Calves of what age are usually affected by calf diphtheria?
How many forms of calf diphtheria are there?
What form of calf diphtheria presents with swelling of the cheeks, necrotic halitosis, anorexia, salivation, lesions on cheek and tongue, +/- pyrexia?
What form of calf diphtheria presents with anorexia, cough, inspiratory stridor, dyspnea, salivation, halitosis, nasal discharge, swollen and painful laryngeal region?
Do animals with the laryngeal form of calf diphtheria usually die with in 2-7 days if not treated?
What are 7 ddx for calf diphtheria?
pharyngeal trauma, viral laryngitis, actinobacillus, laryngeal trauma, edema, abscess, tumors
How do you diagnosis calf diphtheria?
How do you confirm you diagnosis of calf diphtheria?
What is the goal of treatment of calf diphtheria?
cure young ruminants
How do you treat the oral form of calf diphtheria?
systemic antibiotics (sulphonamides, oxytetracyline, penicilin)
Does the laryngeal form of calf diphtheria need long term high dose antibiotics?
In acute forms of calf diphtheria (laryngeal form) what 2 things can be used to treat it?
corticosteroids and NSAIDs
Why is prognosis poor in advanced cases of calf diphtheria (laryngeal form)?
Are long term corticosteroids contraindicated in calf diphtheria (laryngeal form)?
Malignant catarrhal fever is caused by what?
Who is the host of Malignant catarrhal fever? (2)
wildebeest and sheep
Who does Malignant catarrhal fever affect?
cattle and bison
Are bison or cattle more affected by Malignant catarrhal fever?
What disease presents with a high fever, oral/nasal erosions, ocular lesions, swelling of coronary bands, hematuria possible(hemorrhagic cysts), and neurologic signs?
Malignant catarrhal fever
What are 5 ddx for Malignant catarrhal fever?
BVD, FMD, VSD, blue tongue, and pink eye
Is Malignant catarrhal fever diagnosed by serological testing, PCR, treatment is non-specific and there is a grave prognosis for severe cases?
Can esophageal stenosis be caused by mediastinal LN enlargement, congenital, neoplasia, and cicatrix?
Are regurg and tympani signs of esophageal stenosis?
What disease presents with salivation/repeated attempts to swallow, progressive bloat according to nature of obstruction?
choke (aka oesophageal obstruction)
Camelids typically choke from what?
commercial pelleted feed or hay
What are 2 ddx for choke?
other causes of bloat and tetanus
Is choke diagnosed by history of feeding, visual palpation, oronasograstric intubation, endoscopy?
What can animals of choke develop due to loss of saliva?
Should you assess the severity of bloat in choke?
Should you try and massage obstruction up to pharynx in choke?
In a thoracic obstruction how do you remove it?
Should you reintroduce food (soft) slowly in animals who suffered from choke?
Upper alimentary squamous neoplasia is caused by _____ toxin inducing ___?
Clinical signs of Upper alimentary squamous neoplasia can include coughing, salivation, wasting, signs of choke, bloat, rumenal tumors?
How do you diagnosis Upper alimentary squamous neoplasia?
clinical signs and history
Is megaesophagus rare in ruminants?
Is megaesophagus reported in calves and camelids?
Megaesophagus is congenital due to primary or secondary what?
What disease presents with recurrent bloat, regurg and discomfort on eating, chronic weight loss, and aspiration pneumonia?
How do you diagnosis megaesophagus?
Is treatment of megaesophagus supportive?
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