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Chapter 49 Sensory alteration
Terms in this set (35)
sense that allows a person to recognize size, shape, and texture of an object
allows a person to learn about the environment and are necessary for healthy functioning and normal development
What happens when sensory function is altered?
A person's ability to relate to and function within the environment changes
three components of sensory experience
reception, perception, and sensory experience
begins with stimulation of nerve called a receptor which is usually for only one type of stimulus such as light, touch, taste, or sound
Awareness of unique sensations depends on the receiving region of the cerebral cortex where specialized neurons interpret the quality and nature of sensory stimuli
-includes integration and interpretation of stimuli on the basis of person's experiences. A person's level of consciousness influences perception and interpretation of stimuli
Is it possible to react to all stimuli entering the nervous system?
How does a person react to stimuli that are most meaningful and significant at that time?
After continued reception of the same stimulus, a person stops responding and the sensory goes unnoticed.
For example: person is concentrating on reading, doesn't hear background music.
When a person loses visual or hearing acuity
withdraws from communication or socialization
-becomes difficult for person to interact
How do people rely on unaffected senses?
Some senses may compensate for an alteration
For ex: a blind patient develops an acute sense of hearing to compensate of visual loss
How do patients with sensory deficit often change behaviors in adaptive or maladaptive ways?
Ex: a patient with hearing impairment turns the unaffected ear toward the speaker to hear better
reduced sensory input (sensory deficit from visual or hearing loss), the elimination of patterns or meaning from input (exposure to strange environments) and restrictive environments (bed rest)
when a person receives multiple sensory stimuli and can't disregard or ignore some stimuli
-prevents the brain from responding appropriately to or ignoring certain stimuli.
-doesn't perceive the environment in a way that makes sense
-prevents meaningful responses by the brain, the thoughts race and attention scatters, anxiety, and restlessness occur
Who is at risk for sensory overload?
Those that are acutely ill or in a critical care unit
-those who are in pain who undergoes frequent monitoring of vital signs
What factors influence sensory function?
-infants and children are at risk for visual and hearing impairment bc of genetic, prenatal and postnasal conditions
-visual changes occur during adulthood 40-50 include presbyopia and the need for glasses
-hearing changes begin at age 30
-gustatory and olfactory changes occur around 50
-reduce the incidence of sensory deprivation
-include pets, music, tv, pics of family member, and calendar
Amount of stimuli
-excessive stimuli causes sensory overload
-frequency of observations and procedures performed in health care are often stressful
-amount of social contact w family members
-absense of convos can cause isolation, loneliness, or depression
-person's occupation places at risk for hearing, visual, peripheral nerve alterations
-Those involve in high noises are at risk for hearing loss
difficulty with balance, spatial orientation and coordination
otolaryngologist or audiologist
specialize in hearing problems
screening tool for hearing problem
the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE-S)
-identifies patients needing audiological intervention
-5 mins, 10 questions that assess how the individual perceives the social and emotional effects of hearing loss, the greater the score the greater the handicap effect of hearing impairment
observe the patient's appearance, behavior, cognitive ability, and emotional status
Mini Mental State Examination
tool to measure disorientation, change in problem solving abilities and altered conceptualization and abstract thinking
varied degree of inability to speak, interpret, or understanding language
motor type of aphasia, inability to name objects or express simple ideas in words or writing
Ex: patient understands a question but is unable to express answer
inability to understand written or spoken language
Ex: patient is able to express words but cannot understand questions of comments of others
inability to understand language or communicate orally
-most common during childhood
How does vision change with aging?
pupil's ability to adjust to light diminishes
-sensitive to glare
-suggest wearing sunglasses in sunlight
-pocket magnifier helps with reading most printed materials
-color perception also changes, brighter colors such as red, orange and yellow are easier to see
How can you help someone with a hearing loss?
ensure the problem is not impacted with cerumen
What does excessive cerumen in the ear cause?
Conductive hearing loss
How do you clean cerumen?
instilling a softening agent such as .5-1ml mineral oil into the ear canal and irrigate solution of 3% hydrogen peroxide in quart of warm water
Those overly sensitive to tactile stimuli
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