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AP Biology Chapter 5
Terms in this set (55)
Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids - Polymers made of monomers called nucleotides
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds, much as a train consists of cars.
The repeating units that serve as the building blocks for a polymer.
Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions.
Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, with the loss of a water molecule.
A process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. Breaking using water.
Include both sugars and polymers of sugars
Serve as fuel and building material
Simplest carbohydrates. Generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.
Two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as storage material, others as building material for structures that protect the cell or whole organism
A polymer of glucose monomers. Represents stored energy.
The simplest form of starch, amylose, is unbranched.
Starch molecules are largely helical
A polysaccharide that animals store.
A polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched. Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells.
Polymer of glucose
Is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells.
Cellulose molecule is straight
Polysaccharide carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons.
Similar to cellulose, with beta linkages, except the glucose monomer of a chitin has a nitrogen-containing appendage.
They mix poorly, if at all, with water. Consists mostly of hydrocarbon regions
3 Types: Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids
Constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
Long carbon skeleton, usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length. The carbon at one end of the skeleton is part of a carboxyl group, the functional group that gives these molecules the name "fatty acid".
Three fatty acid molecules are each joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, a bond between a hydroxyl and carboxyl group.
Saturated fatty acid
If there are no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton. Saturated with hydrogen
Unsaturated fatty acid
Has one or more double bonds with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double-bounded carbon.
Composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule. The phosphate group and polar head region of the molecule is hydrophilic, while the fatty acid tail is hydrophobic.
Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
Type of lipid, a substance that is insoluble in water, like oil or fat. Specifically, cholesterol is a type of fat that is made up of four interlocked rings of carbon called a steroid.
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
Polymers of amino acids
Biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides
Organic molecule possessing both an amino group and a carboxyl group.
When two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can be joined by a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule.
Some regions of a polypeptide may coil or fold back on themselves. This is called _____, and the coils or folds are held in place by _____.
secondary structure ... hydrogen bonds
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that
none of them dissolves in water
Sucrose is formed when glucose is joined to fructose by a
Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
The four main categories of large biological molecules present in living systems are _____.
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
The flow of genetic information in a cell goes from _____.
DNA to RNA to protein
Which feature of large biological molecules explains their great diversity?
The many ways that monomers of each class of biological molecule can be combined into polymers
Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?
The phosphodiester linkages of the polynucleotide backbone would be broken.
What structural difference accounts for the functional differences between starch and cellulose?
Starch and cellulose differ in the glycosidic linkages between their glucose monomers.
The building blocks or monomers of nucleic acid molecules are called _____.
Which molecule is a nucleotide?
A hydrophobic amino acid R group (side group) would be found where in a protein?
on the inside of the folded chain, away from water
The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the
Double stranded helix.
Its nucleotides are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
Adenine nucleotides will hydrogen bond to thymine nucleotides, and cytosine to guanine.
Sugar is deoxyribose: Lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the ring
Nucleotides are adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine
Sugar is ribose
Composed of nitrogen containing nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar (pentose), and one or more phosphate groups.
Nucleic acids that exist as polymers. Each monomer has only one phosphate group.
Has one six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of this family are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
Larger, with a six-membered ring fused to a five membered ring. Has adenine and guanine.
Nitrogenous base plus sugar. To complete a nucleotide, attach a phosphate group to the 5' carbon of the sugar.
Consists of a phosphate group that links the sugars of two nucleotides. This bonding results in a backbone with a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate units.
The two sugar-phosphate backbones run in opposite 5'-3' directions from each other. The sugar phosphate backbones are on the outside of the helix, and the nitrogenous bases are paired in the interior of the helix. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the paired bases.
Protein is destroyed. Most proteins become denatured if they are transferred from an aqueous environment to a nonpolar solvent, such as ether or chloroform; the polypeptide chain refolds so that its hydrophobic regions face outward towards the solvent.
Protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of outher proteins. Do not specify the final structure of a polypeptide. Instead, they keep the new polypeptide segregated from "bad influences" in the cytoplasmic environment while it folds spontaneously.
Levels of Protein Structure
Primary - Linear chain of amino acids
Secondary - Regions stabilized by hydrogen bonds
between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
Tertiary - 3D shape stabilized by interactions between side chains
Quarternary - Association of multiple polypeptides, forming a functional protein
Beta pleated sheet
Type of secondary structure
Make up the core of many globular proteins, and dominate some fibrous proteins.
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