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Terms in this set (36)
a group of cells that functions as a unit and can be identified histologically (e.g. epithelial tissues, connective tissues, nervous tissues, muscle tissues) within organs
refers to the study of microscopic structures (tissues and cells); histology is sometimes called microscopic anatomy.
"cover body surfaces, line body cavities, and form glands...epithelial cells, whether arranged in a single layer or in multiple layers, are always contiguous with one another; in addition, they are usually joined by specialized cell-to-cell junctions, which create a barrier between the free surface and the adjacent [often underlying] connective tissue"
"underlie or support the other three basic tissues, both structurally and functionally...unlike epithelial cells, connective tissue cells are conspicuously separated from one another; the intervening spaces are occupied by material produced by the cells; this extracellular material is called extracellular matrix; the nature of the cells and matrix varies according to the function of the tissue; thus, subclassification of connective tissue takes into account not only the cells but also the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix"
are "made up of contractile cells and are responsible for movement...muscle cells are characterized by large amounts of the contractile proteins actin and myosin in their cytoplasm and by their particular cellular arrangement in the tissue; to function efficiently to effect movement, most muscle cells are aggregated into distinct bundles that are easily distinguished from the surrounding tissue; muscle cells are typically elongated and oriented with their long axes in the same direction; the arrangement of nuclei is also consistent with the parallel orientation of muscle cells"
"receive, transmit, and integrate information from outside and inside the body to control the activities of the body... nerve cells or neurons are highly specialized to transmit electrical impulses from one site in the body to another; they are also specialized to integrate those impulses; nerve cells receive and process information from the external and internal environment[s] and may have specific sensory receptors and sensory organs to accomplish this function"
epithelial tissues are composed mostly of cells with very little extracellular matrix. This is in contrast to connective tissues.
neighboring epithelial cells are joined together by special cell junctions that hold the cells together as a unit.
epithelial tissues are characterized by having a free apical surface often facing an external environment or a lumen and the basal surface is typically supported by connective tissues.
underlying connective tissues often support overlying epithelial tissues.
epithelial tissues lack blood vessels and are supplied by capillaries located within the supportive connective tissues (e.g., dermis underlying epidermis).
nerve endings do penetrate epithelial sheets.
many epithelial tissues that face external environments are exposed to friction and these cells must be replaced constantly via cell division (e.g., epidermal cells).
lots of different types of epithelial tissues are found throughout the body; fortunately there is a systematic approach to naming most epithelial tissues; the epithelia typically possess 2 names, the first name is associated with the number of layers present and the second name describes the shape of the apical cells typically facing an external environment or a lumen.
epithelial tissues are formed by sheets of cells that exhibit stratification or layering.
epithelial tissues that are composed of a single layer of cells are called simple epithelia.
epithelial tissues that are composed of two or more layers of cells are called stratified epithelia.
the shape of epithelial cells varies and when naming stratified epithelia the apical layer of cells is used for classification or naming.
platelike or flat cells with disc-shaped/flat nuclei
cube-shaped cells with spherical/round nuclei.
tall or column-shaped cells with elongate/oval nuclei.
Simple Squamous Epithelium
single layer of cells with disc-shaped/flattened nuclei; diffusion, filtration, and secretion are common functions.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
single layer of cells with spherical/round nuclei; secretion and absorption are common functions.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
single layer of cells with elongate/oval nuclei; secretion and absorption are common functions, ciliated forms propel substances (e.g., reproductive cells).
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
single layer of cells that appears stratified because the cells vary in height and the elongated/oval nuclei are located at several different levels; secretion and absorption are common functions; ciliated forms propel substances (e.g., mucus).
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
two or more layers of cells with apical cells possessing disc-shaped/flattened nuclei; protection is a common function.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
often two layers of cells with apical cells possessing spherical/round nuclei; rare; protection is a common function
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
two or more layers of cells with apical cells possessing elongate/oval nuclei; rare, can be found in male urethra; protection and secretion are common functions.
multiple layers of cells with apical cell nuclei either spherical/round or disc- shaped/flattened; protection and stretching are common functions; associated with several urinary organs.
simple squamous epithelium that helps to provide a friction-reducing lining for the hollow organs of the circulatory system (blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels).
simple squamous epithelium that helps to provide a friction-reducing lining for the coelomic cavities (pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal).
are composed of epithelial cells that produce and secrete an aqueous fluid that typically contains protein products.
secrete their products onto body surfaces (e.g., skin) or into hollow organs like the digestive and respiratory tracts; multicellular exocrine glands possess ducts.
do not possess ducts; so, they secrete their products directly into the surrounding tissue; their products are messenger molecules called hormones and are transported to target cells/tissues via the cardiovascular system.
go over types of glands on last page of notes
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