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Biology 121 4,5,6

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Transcripts of rRNA genes afe concentrated in the:
Nucleolus
At physiological pH, the ionized state of the amino (NH2) group in the R group of lysine is:
NH3+
Using table 4.1, determine which of the following is an anticodon found on a tRNA that carries a tyronsine (Tyr or Y) amino acid?
3' AUG-5'
A region of a protein that folds in a particular way, and that carries out a specific function, is referred to as a folding
Domain
Amino acid sequences evolve through
Mutation and selection
The codon used to initiate protein synthesis is
AUG
Which one of the following is NOT a component of an amino acid?
Triphosphate group
How many different types of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are here?
20
X-Ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of:
All of these choices are correct
The fully folded structure of a functional protein composed of a single polypeptide chain is referred to as the _________ structure.
Tertiary
The unfolding of a protein by heat or chemical treatment is referred to as:
Denaturation
Exposure of purified phospholipids to water results in the spontaneous formation of:
Lipid bilayers
Which one of the following is NOT a component of an animal cell's plasma membrane?
Nucleus acid
Long, saturated fatty acid tails _________ lipid mobility and __________ membrane fluidity.
Reduce; decrease
The process of a vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and depositing its contents into the extra cellular space is referred to as:
Exocytosis
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is referred to as
Osmosis
In which of the following regions of the cell can protein synthesis occur in eukaryotes?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm
Which of the following is a common function of membrane proteins?
Transport, attachment, signal reception, catalysis
The Golgi apparatus is responsible for at least a portion of a eukaryote's
- modification of lipid synthesis in the ER
- carbohydrates synthesis
- targeting of proteins to the final destinations
- modification of protein synthesis in the ER
The process of synthesizing simple sugars using sunlight as an energy source is referred to as
Photosynthesis
Figure 5.2 shows a common biological phospholipid called phosphatidyl choline. Which of the following is NOT a component of phosphatidyl choline?
Three fatty acids
Which of the following cellular processes occurs in the nucleus of a eukaryote?
Transcription and RNA processing
Ribosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryote's are?
Similar in structure and translate using the same genetic code
Which of the following amino acids is MOST likely to participate in hydrogen bonding with water?
Asparagine
Which of the following is a critical region of a tRNA molecule
Amino acid attachment and anticodon loop
Proteins can be used for which of the following cellular roles?
All of these choices are correct
Which of the following would be synthesized in and processed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus?
Lysosomal enzymes
The lipid components of cellular membranes often include:
Phospholipids and cholesterol
A beaker contains two solutions of salt dissolved in water. The two solutions have different concentrations (measured by morality,M) and are separated by a membrane that is permeable to both salt and water.
There is more water in side A than there is in side B
The MOST abundant organic molecule in nature is:
Cellulose
Specific types of lipids assemble into defined areas of a biological membrane referred to as:
Lipid rafts
RNA molecules are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in eukaryote's through:
Nuclear pores
In response to seasonal changes in temperature, many organisms must alter the composition of their plasma membranes to maintain the proper degree of fluidity. As summer turns to fall and eventually into winter, which of the following would you predict you would observe in the plasma membrane of organisms that are unable to regulate their body temperature?
A decrease in phospholipid fatty acid side chain length and a decrease in side chain saturation
Which one of the following is NOT considered part of the cytoplasm?
The nucleus
The sodium-potassium pump is an example of:
An antiporter
In intestinal epithelial cells, a transport protein moves glucose into the cytoplasm against its concentration gradient at the same time that it transports Na+ into the cell down its electrochemical gradient. Which of the following CORRECTLY describes this cotransplant of glucose and sodium?
Secondary active transport by a symporter
Which one of the following is moved from one side of a lysosomal membrane to the other by a transport protein in the lysosomal membrane?
Protons and broke down macromolecules
Which one of the following is considered an integral membrane protein?
A protein with its N-terminus in the cytoplasm and its c-terminus in the extracellular space
Which one of the following describes the hydrophilic component of cholesterol?
A hydroxyl group only
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