6 terms

4.Modernization Theory

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Modernization Theory
Theory used to explain the process of modernization within societies.Holds that traditional countries can be brought to development in same manner other countries have.
Phases, homogenizing, irreversible, progressive, lengthy.
Set of Assumptions drawn from Functionalist Theory
1. Modernization is a systematic process, changes in all aspects of social behavior
2. Transformative Process: traditional structures & values must be totally replaced by set of modern structures & values
3. Inherent Process- Modernization breeds and causes modernization elsewhere
Lipset
First to assert empirical relationship btwn development & democracy:

"the more well-to-do a nation, the greater the chances that it will sustain democracy"

Established relationship between level of development in a country & likelihood it will be democratic

-Theory Continues to hold true, been tested extensively

-Lipset hypothesized that as societies develop economically; their citizens no longer tolerate repressive political regimes. The rise in per capita GDP, he argued, triggers a transition to democracy.
Przeworksi & Limongi
development shows consistent relationship to democracy
-As countries develop "social structure becomes complex, labor processes begin to require the active cooperation of employees, and new groups emerge and organize.
-assert that the endogenous theory of democratization (that development leads to democracy) is false but that the exogenous theory has strong support (development helps sustain democracy)
-most other scholars think development does indeed lead to democracy
-no democracy ever fell, regardless of everything else, in a country with a per capita income higher than $6055, democracy would last forever
-poor countries in transition have harder time remaining a democracy
-Low Per Capita income= low democracy lifespan
Endogenous Explanation
Within system itself.

Modernization theory is an endogenous explanation - democracy results from development under authoritarianism. That is, poor, authoritarian countries develop and become democratic once they reach some level of development
-Development under authoriarianism leads to democracy
-Which regime types are better for economic development? Dictatorships or Democratic? No answer...
-Many countries develop economically under dictatorships, then transition to democracy
Exogenous Explanation
Outside System.
dictatorships are equally likely to die and democracies emerge at any level of development and that development helps sustain democracy once it is established
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