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created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of the New World; implies commonality that didn't exist; still used for Native Americans


nomadic peoples from beyond northern frontier of sedentary agricultural area in mesoamerica; strong militaristic ethic incorporated human sacrifice


nomadic tribe that used political anarchy to penetrate sedentary agricultural zone in Mesoamerica; est. empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texoco


est. 1325 on Lake Texoco; center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texoco in 1434 to control most of Central plateau of Mesoamerica


Aztec advisor 1427-1480; had histories rewritten; expanded human sacrifice as political terror


members of highest Aztec social rank


Aztec tribal patron god; Central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god


7 clans of Aztec society; later greater than 60 clans; residential groupings


systen of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs


special merchant class in Aztec society; long-distance luxury items

Inca Socialism

An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.


Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina


group of clans centered at Cuzco able to create empire in Andean civilization


Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca

Tupac Yupanqui

ruled 1471-1493; extended northward; rebuilt Quito

Huayna Capac

Inca ruler of Peru 1493-1527; son of Tupac Yupanqui

split inheritance

Inca practice of descent; titles and power went to sucessor; money and land went to male descendants to care for mummy

temple of the sun

Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas


Ayllu chiefs with priveleges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean soldiers


Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quecha-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home


Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages


Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.


knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the inca to keep financial records

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