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23 terms

Ch. 11 Terms

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Indian
created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of the New World; implies commonality that didn't exist; still used for Native Americans
Toltecs
nomadic peoples from beyond northern frontier of sedentary agricultural area in mesoamerica; strong militaristic ethic incorporated human sacrifice
Aztecs
nomadic tribe that used political anarchy to penetrate sedentary agricultural zone in Mesoamerica; est. empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texoco
Tenochtitlan
est. 1325 on Lake Texoco; center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texoco in 1434 to control most of Central plateau of Mesoamerica
Tlacaelel
Aztec advisor 1427-1480; had histories rewritten; expanded human sacrifice as political terror
Pipiltin
members of highest Aztec social rank
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; Central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
calpulli
7 clans of Aztec society; later greater than 60 clans; residential groupings
Chinampas
systen of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs
Pochteca
special merchant class in Aztec society; long-distance luxury items
Inca Socialism
An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Twantinsuyu
Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
Inca
group of clans centered at Cuzco able to create empire in Andean civilization
Pachacuti
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
Tupac Yupanqui
ruled 1471-1493; extended northward; rebuilt Quito
Huayna Capac
Inca ruler of Peru 1493-1527; son of Tupac Yupanqui
split inheritance
Inca practice of descent; titles and power went to sucessor; money and land went to male descendants to care for mummy
temple of the sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas
curacas
Ayllu chiefs with priveleges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean soldiers
Mitmaq
Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quecha-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home
Tambos
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Quipu
knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the inca to keep financial records