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Flashcards for Final Exam - Human Growth and Development (PS121 - Xaverius)

The life span approach serves to identify

patterns of transition and transformation from one period of life to another.

Persistant poverty during infancy and childhood is associated with negative consequences to

all of the above (health, school achievement, mental health).

Which of the following statements about longevity is not considered true?

Longevity is only influenced by psychological factors.

The impact of poverty is complex and can ________ the risks individuals face in their development


Which of the following is most likely to bring about chane in the psychological system?


A ____________ is a logical system of concepts that provides a framework for organizing and integrating observations.


A tehory of human development is expected to provide explanations for which of the following?

How people change and grow over the life span.

Who is considered the developer of pscyhosocial theory?

Erik Erikson

A developmental stage is best described as

a period of life that is characterized by a specific underlying organization.

The epigenic principle refers to

a biolgical plan for growth.

Which of the following is the best descriptor phrase for the laws of natural selection?

Over generations, species gradually change in response to changing environmental conditions.

According to psychosexual theory, which structure houes the person's moral and ethical principles?


Whicho f the following is not considered a theory of learning?

Cognitive development.

Whichof the following theories of learning emphasizes repetition and consequences in the learning process?

Operant conditioning.

Whichof the following theories focuses on the processes and relationships among interdependent elements that have some common goals, interrelated fucntions, boundaries, and an identity?

Systems theory.

Which one of the following is an example of how gentic factors influence a child's environment?

Tina is very sociable andoutgoing. She loves to have friends over to the house who also get to play with her baby, Joe.

Sperm can stay alive in the uterus for how long?

Five days.

When does the differentiation of the sex organs occur in fetal development?

The fetal period.

What is known about the effects of cesarean delivery on mothers?

Mothers who had a cesarean delivery are less satsified with thier childbirth experience.

How have the medical practices in the US related to pregnancy and childbirth changed since hte 1940s and 50s?

Greater involvement of fathers during labor and delivery.

Which one of the following weights would be considered a low birth weight baby?

5 pounds, 8 ounces.

Cultures such as Africa and Central America hold infants upright rather than lying them down in a cradle or crib. Infants in these cultures tend to

walk at an earlier age than western infants.

Which term refers to positive caregiver behavioral responses to infant signals that lead to the formation of a trusting relationship?


After 6 months of age the infant may cling more to his parents in the presence of strangers. This is an example of

stranger anxiety.

A model of factors affecting a caregiver's sensitivity to an infant's needs inclues 4 factors. Which of the following is not included in this model?

Urban, rurual, or suburban community context.

Physical activity contributes in a fundamental way to

a toddler's self-concept.

Through the achievement of communicative competence, children

all of the above (become increasingly integrated into their culture, learn when to speak and when to remain silent, learn how to approach communication with parents, peers, and authority figures).

"Allgone Daddy" and "Go ByeBye" are examples of

telegraphic speech.

One of the most important elements of self-control that develops during toddlerhood is the ability to

delay the gratification or expression of impulses.

In addition to the intellectual and social benefits of quality child care participation, studies of Head Start Programs have shown benefits in which of the following areas/

Higher daily nutitoral intake.

You hear a five-year-old girl say, "I love my mommy. When I grow up I want to be just like her." This is an example of which of the following?

Identifying with the same-sex parent.

According to social learning theory, learning the moral code occurs largely through which of the following?

Observation and imitation.

Robert Selman's analysis of levels of social perspective taking suggests that children aged 4 to 6 years are likley to approach social conflicts in which way?

They assume all participants view the situation as they do.

Which of the following features characterizes self theory during the early and middle school years?

A new level of concern about social norms and expectations.

What is one implication of the fact that girls and boys tend to form same-sex friendship groups?

Girls and boys develop distinct peer-communication strategies.

A student who believes in her ability to approach a new situation and "get the job done" demonstrates


Erin says, "i can't do it" and her father, Bruce, says, "Try harder". Erin then replies, "It doen't matter how hard I try I will never be good at it like Tommy." this could be an example of

learned helplessness.

Team sports emphasize which of the following concepts?

Interdependence of team members.

____________ children are more aware of the emotional and nonverbal behaviors of others and make more use of social information to evaluate and regulate their own behavior.

High self-monitoring.

Which emotion is most characteristic of withdrawn children?


What is one of the earliest signs for the onset of puberty for girls?

Breast buds.

How is the timing of puberty relaed to self-image for late-maturing adolescent boys?

They are likely to be self-conscious and have a negative self-image.

As a high school freshman, Carl has become part of a friendship group that involves students from a wide variety of family backgrounds. This is having an impact on his cognitive development. What is the likely outcome?

Increased ability to think an a relativistic way about self, others, and the world.

In the study of three ethnic groups, what happened to realtions with parents as peer relations increased in importance during early adolescence?

Parents decreased in importance as peer relaitions provided more closeness.

Contraceptive use among adolsecents has


What criteria does James Marcia use to determine a person's identity status?

A combination of a and b (the experience of crisis or uncertanity and commitment to values and goals).

Which term refers to cultural expectations concerning the appropriate beahvior for males and females?

Gender-role standards.

The core pathology of later adolscence is repudiation. This refers to

a hostile rejection of ideas and groups that do not adhere to one's own beliefs.

The identity status characterized by commitment without a period of questioning and exploratin is


According to the text, what change has taken place from 1970 to 2000 with respect to gender-role standards?

A greater expectation for both males and females to be assertive and sensitive communicators.

In adulthood, one's beliefs and goals guide the nature of one's actions, and actions create a context for the revision of one's goals. This process illustrates which of the follow ideas?

The bidirectional nature of development.

Which of the following are factors associated with the advancing age of entry into adulthood?

Students take about five or six years to complete college.

In the last 20 years, the number of cohabitating couples has


According to research, which coupls are able to maintain their relationship quality int he face of economic distress?

Those who exhibited cooperative, mutualy respectful problem-solving strategies.

When workers are organized into teams,

a competitive orientation is liketly to be fostered.

Which of the following is considered a contributing factor to the increased number of amilies with children who are homeless?

A decline in the purchasing power of minimum wage.

What is the childhood basis of adult creativity?

Representational thought.

What is the fastest growing sement of the homeless population?

Families with children.

Daughters are more likely to provide ___________ to parents.

All of the above (emotional support, help in dialy tasks, and direct care).

Of the following, who is most likely to be distressed by family-work conflict?


Which of the following personality characteristics have not been linked with life satisfaction in later life?


Promoting intellectual vigor is considered an important developmental task of later adulthood because

intellectual vigor influences the capacity for life review and introspection.

Crystalized intelligence is considered the ability to

apply knowledge accumulated through prior experiences into new situations.

Whichof the following statements about grandparenthood is most accurate?

Grandhchildren are an older adult's link to the future.

The case about Morrie, who is dying from ALS, includes a converation with his former student, Mitch. From the conversation, one could conclude that

Morrie has achieved a sense of integrity and wisdom.

Which of the following is not one of the age-related changes in vision that is experienced by msot older adults?

Decrease in color discrimination.

Mary explains to her grandchildren how her grandparetns came to the US on a boath many years ago. The homleand of her grandparetns is Slovakia and she retells the stories of her childhood and her grandparents' childhood. Mary's sharing of her identity is an example of


A residential setting offering private housing, medical care and preventitive health services, social services, and nursing care as needed is referred to as a

continuing care community.

What is the central process for resolving the psychosocial crisis of very old age?

Social support.

Which of the following should the goal of providing community services to the frail elderly be?

Enhance a relaistic level of performance.

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