MS Block Gross anatomy
Terms in this set (63)
Most energy efficient way to counter counteract flexion-extension movements.
Prevents hyperextension of the hip.
Type I muscle fibers
The most energy efficient muscle fiber type
Unlocks the knee by rotating the femur laterally and slight knee flexion
Initial contact with one leg to initial contact with opposite leg
Touchdown, Midstance, Liftoff
Pelvis during step
Forward rotation of pelvis with a swing limb
Gluteus maximus and anterior tibialis
Quads and gastrocs
If gluteus maximus or hamstring is weak. (inferior gluteal/tibial nerve)
Lean away from affected side.
If femoral nerve is hurt. Knee collapse into flexion at initial contact and early loading response.
Quadriceps past midstance
Action of interossei and lumbricles
Help flex the MCP and extend the IP joint.
Partial felxion, Lower levels of FDP contraction, Passive tension in lumbricals (ulnar and median nerve), Active force via interossei (ulnar)
Spinal nerve torn from spinal cord.
Spinal nerve torn beyond CNS
Spinal nerve torn and partially healed.
Spinal nerve stretched and damaged
abduction of arm
C5 and 6
Flexion of elbow
C6, 7, 8
Extension of elbow
Flexion of digits
Adduction and abduction of digits
Erb-duchenne palsy (upper brachial plexus injury)
Roots of C5 and C6.
Lateral neck bending (fall on shoulder/childbirth).
Suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial.
Deltoid and supraspinatus (arm adducted, cannot abduct).
Infraspinatus (Arm medially rotated by pec major and latissimus cannot rotate laterally).
Biceps, brachialis (Elbow extended, cannot flex, forearm pronate, WAITER's TIP)
Lower brachial plexus injury (Klumpke's)
C8-T1 damaged roots.
Hyperabduction of arm (grabbing object while falling).
Paralysis or weakness of short muscles of hand.
Thoracic outlet syndrome.
Fracture of surgical neck of humerus. Dislocation of glenohumeral joint. Improper use of crutches. Regimental badge. Weakness in deltoid.
Biceps, coracobrachialis, and brachialis (weakness in elbow flexion and forearm supination).
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (loss of sensation on the lateral surface of forearm.
Ligament of struthers syndrome
Weakness of all median nerve nerve muscles (pronator teres, most finger flexors).
Thenar wasting (Ape hand).
Benediction hand, sensory loss over thenar eminence.
Pronator teres syndrome
Compression due to pronator teres. Pain on pronation but no muscle loss.
Anterior interosseous nerve
Cannot make OK sign. Weak flexion on 1st IP joint.
Thenar wasting. No sensory loss.
Path of ulnar nerve
Proximal median nerve damage (cubital fossa and above)
Motor=finger and wrist flexors, thenar muscles, 1st and 2nd lumbricals. Can't flex distal IP joints on digits 2 and 3. Benediction hand when attempting to make a fist.
Above elbow=loss of pronation and medial deviation during wrist flexion.
Loss of sensation in lateral palm and tips of digits 1-3. Flexor of thumb IP joint only.
Ulnar nerve forearm neuropathies
Elbow-loss of dexterity, decreased grip and pinch strength.
Weakness in adduction at wrist.
Ulnar claw hand, froment sign. Digit 4-5 numbness.
index finger at PIP joint is hyperextended on pinching. Ulnar nerve injury.
Adductor pollicis is weak
Upper humerus radial (Saturday night palsy)
Weakness in elbow and wrist extensors, weak wrist abduction and extension. Numbness on dorsum of hand.
Lower humerus radial nerve
Triceps spared. Lose brachioradialis, ECRL, ECRB, and wrist extensors, Numbness on dorsum of hand.
Posterior interosseous nerve
Brachioradialis and triceps functioning. Wrist drop.
Saturday night palsy
Happens via fracture of humerus
Long thoracic nerve (serratus anterior)
Trapezius. Surgery in posterior triangle ofneck. Weak elevation of scapula.
Overhead motion. Cannot abduct the first 15 degrees.
Herpes zoster (shingles)
Affects dermatomes and is dormant in the cell bodies of infected sensory nerves
Vertebrae and ribs
Lateral plate mesoderm
Failure of the neural arches to fuse or adequately form. Occulta=mild "hair tuft"
Meninges and spinal cord herniate
Type II collagen
Type I (fibrocartilage)
attach to the bone
5th lumbar fused with sacral = sacralizaiton
thoracic and sacral (kyphosis)
tend to be posterior and lateral (lower cervical or lower lumbar)
Injury to anterior longitudinal ligament. Head and neck hyperextended then slammed forward.
Done below L2 (most commonly L4-L5) to avoid spinal cord.
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