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History of Ocean Exploration and Marine Science

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What are three reasons to learn the history of oceanography?
1. The history of oceanography is connected to the world's overall history.
2. Oceanography's past helps us understand why and how people apply marine sciences today.
3. It is interesting.
What are the four main stages in the history of oceanography?
1. Ancient Uses and Explorations (5000 B.C.- 800 A.D.)
2. The Middle Ages (800-1400)
3. European Voyages of Discovery (1400-1700)
4. The Birth and Growth of Modern Marine Science (1700-present)
What were the three primary reasons for early civilization to interact with the ocean?
1. To obtain food.
2. To discover new lands.
3. As a means of trade.
When was the first recorded sea voyage, and by what civilization?
-3200 B.C.
-under the auspices of Egyptian Pharaoh Shefru.
What did the Phoenicians contribute to ocean exploration?
established the first trade routes throughout the Mediterranean, even as far north as Great Britain
What was the significance of early Polynesian seafaring?
-earliest known regular, long-distance, open-ocean sailing beyond sight of land.
-used knowledge of currents and winds to show them where to go.
How did ancient explorers navigate near shore and in the open ocean?
- learned to use the sun, constellations, the North Star and sea conditions to navigate in the open ocean.
-Greeks knew the Earth was a sphere, not flat.
What major ocean discovery is credited to Greek Pytheas?
-could predict tides in North or South one angle between the horizon and the North Star. ----was a significant improvement in navigation
Where is the North Star located?
last star in the handle of big dipper
What two major contributions are credited to the Greek Eratosthenes?
1. He calculated the Earth's circumference.
2. He invented the first latitude/longitude system.
(review big dipper diagram on front of notes and latitude/longitude notes)
What was the significance of the map of Herodotus?
(480 B.C.) - published a detailed history of Greece's struggles with the Persian Empire.
- one of the earliest published maps of the world the Greeks knew.
What was the significance of the map of Strabo?
(63 B.C. - 24 A.D.) -published a 17-book work called Geographic that contained a map expanding knowledge/accuracy about the world.
What was the significance of the map of Ptolemy?
(100-168 A.D.) -developed the known map to show portion of the Earth as a sphere on flat paper.
What is the purpose of the latitude and longitude mapping system?
identifies specific locations on Earth's surface
What is a parallel? What is another name for the 0 degree parallel?
- parallel is another name for latitude line and runs east to west.
-equator is another name for 0 degree parallel.
What is a meridian? Through what city does the 0 degree median run/
-meridian is another name for longitude line and runs north to south.
-Greenwich, England
What effect did the Middle Ages have on the knowledge of geography and science.
-little ocean explorations by Europeans
-trade continued
What climate change affected Scandinavia in the 9th century? What was the significance of this change to exploration?
-global warming
-freed North Atlantic of ice---allowed Vikings to explore westward, discovered Iceland, Greenland, and North America
By the year 1125, the Chinese were responsible for inventing what important navigational tool?
magnetic compass
What two technological innovations did Chinese ships have by the mid 1400s?
-central rudders
-watertight compartments
What were the primary motivations that led to the ocean explorations of the 15th century?
-economics
-politics
-religion
What three explorers established the route around the Cape of Good Hope to India?
-Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal
-Bartholomeu Dias
-Vasco de Gamma
What was the purpose of Christopher Columbus' four expeditions?
-wanted to find route to Asia in 1492
-believed he had found Asia when he landed on a Caribbean Island
Who is credited as being the first European to recognize that South America was a new continent?
Amerigo Vaspucci
What was Vasco Nunez de Balboa's accomplishment?
-in early 1500s led expedition that crossed Isthmus of Panama
-discovered Pacific Ocean
-first European to sail in the Pacific
Who led the first expedition around the world? Over what years did this voyage take place?
-1519-1522
-Ferdinand Magellan (5 ships)
Who led the second expedition around the world? Over what years did the voyage take place?
-1577-1580
-Francis Drake
In what way did the voyages of James Cook differ from those of sea explorers before him?
-receive credit as first sea expeditions devoted to methodical scientific oceanography
-reports changed western view of the world
What invention of 1735 was a major breakthrough for open ocean navigation?
-invention of chronometer
-invented clock that runs accurately at sea
-made possible to determine accurate longitude
What geographical discoveries did the Cook expeditions make?
Discovered:
-Australia
-New Zealand
-many islands in the South Pacific
-the Hawaiian Islands
-the West Coast of the US
-Canada
-Bering Strait
-Antarctic Circle
Which continent did the United States Exploring Expedition prove exists?
Antarctica
Why do we remember Matthew Maury as the father of physical oceanography?
- (1855) published The Physical Geography of the Sea
-now considered first textbook on modern oceanography
-admiral of Confederate Navy
How did Darwin explain the formation of coral reefs?
-observed massive reefs must form when sea floor slowly sinks and coral grows upward from its base to remain in shallow water
What theory did Darwin propose as a result of his observations during the H.M.S. Beagle expedition?
theories on natural selection and the evolution of species
What expedition is commonly recognized as the first devoted entirely to marine science?
The Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)
What accomplishments and discoveries did the H.M.S. Challenger make?
-took first surroundings deeper than 4,000 meters
-captured biological samples in midwater and along bottom
-discovered marine organisms in the deepest parts of the ocean
-sampled and illustrated plankton in various habitats and depths not previously studied
-cataloged and identified 715 new genera and 4,711 new species
What change led to the growth and expansion of modern oceanography in the 20th century?
Industrial Revolution
For what accomplishment do we recognize the German Meteor expedition?
mapped Atlantic seafloor with echo-sounding technology
What was the significance of the Atlantis?
first ship specifically designed and built for ocean studies
What noted discovery did the second H.M.S Challenger make?
found deepest known part of the ocean
How have submersibles and self-contained diving changed the study of the oceans?
-scientists can pick specific samples
-scientists can take delicate samples without damaging them
and living organisms without killing them
-scientists can directly observe the geology, life, and other phenomena without taking any samples
What are the three types of submersible that have been used for underwater research?
1. Bathysphere
2. Bathyscaphe
3. Deep-diving submersibles
What are the advantages of of submersibles and scuba?
submersibles: greater depth, long duration
scuba: low cost/simplicity, portability
What are the disadvantages of submersibles and scuba?
submersibles: high cost/large size, logistical complexity
scuba: limited depth, short duration
What other technology has expanded underwater research?
-ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicles), AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles), Electronic Navigation, Satellites
How have Loran-C and GPS benefited seafaring and oceanography?
Loran-C:
-used land based radio transmitters along coasts
-farther from transmitter, less accurate of position
GPS:
-based on signals from orbiting satellites
-works everywhere on Earth, all the time, in all weather
-more accurate
What are the three types of sea surface observations that satellites can make to benefit oceanographers?
1. orbit the Earth and assist oceanographers with global observations of the oceans
2. assist oceanographers in understanding the influence and effect of the oceans on the global climate systems
3. information gathered from satellites helps to validate computer models that numerically simulate climate events